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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
2020 Vol.38 Issue.1
Published 2020-01-25

2020 Vol. 38 (1): 0- [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 21594KB] ( 92 )
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 0- [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 266KB] ( 75 )
1 Analytical method for predicting of hydraulic performance of jet pump installations
ZOU Chenhai,LI Hong*,XIANG Qingjiang,TANG Pan,CHEN Chao
An analytical method for predicting hydraulic performance of a jet pump installation was proposed by updating the existing graphic method and validated experimentally. Based on the measured dimensionless head-flow rate curve of a jet pump and the head-flow rate curve of a centrifugal pump, the hydraulic performance curves of the jet pump installation were predicted at various dimensionless flow rates and compared with those measured at 4.5 m and 9.0 m suction heights, respectively. It turned out that that the error in the analytical method is overall lower than in the graphic method, as a result, the dependence of the jet pump head on its dimensionless flow rate has been even better represented by the former. Note that the error at a few operating points still is notably large, obviously, an update on the method is need. In do so, a correction factor, i.e. the ratio of a predicted head to the tested head was used to correct the jet pump head Hc. Then influences of suction height, area ratio, nozzle diameter, flow rate ratio, distance between throat and nozzle, length of throat and pump rotational speed on Hc were identified by employing Plackett-Burman experimental design method. The critical factors affecting the correction factor was found to be the area ratio and flow rate ratio. Finally, an empirical formula for the correction factor was best fitted(correlation coefficient 0.99)by using genetic algorithm in terms of flow rate q and area ratio m. The predicted jet pump heads were contrasted with those measured at 3.5 m and 8.0 m suction heights. It was shown that the errors in the head are less than 5% at each working point. Thus, the heads predicted are subject to a high reliability.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1814KB] ( 116 )
7 Effect of inducer inlet hub ratio on suction performance of a centrifugal pump
CHENG Xiaorui,*,TU Yixuan,TENG Fei,LIU He
Based on numerical simulation and experiment, the influence of inducer inlet hub ratio on suction performance was investigated in terms of a type of submersible electric cryogenic LNG pump. Three-dimensional, steady, turbulent, cavitating flows in the pump were simulated by using the RNG k-ε turbulence model along with the full cavitation model, and the accuracy of simulations was validated with experiment on a model pump. Five pumps were designed with five inlet hub ratios such as 0.260, 0.274, 0.289, 0.303 and 0.318, respectively. The cavitation developing process, static pressure distribution in the inducer and impeller and suction performances curve of these pumps were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the cavitation developing processes in the inducer and impeller are basically identical, i.e. a cavity always occurs firstly in the low-pressure zone at the inducer inlet tip regardless of inlet hub ratio. An increasing inducer inlet hub ratio can result in an increased meridian velocity at the inlet, and reduce the angle of attack. As a result, flow separation occurs on the blade suction side, and the low-pressure zone expands gradually; eventually the pump suction perfor-mance is impaired. Therefore, in order to obtain a better suction performance, the inducer inlet hub ratio can be reduced in a proper range.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 7-14 [Abstract] ( 23 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3141KB] ( 109 )
15 Influence of volute structure on rotor operational stability in high-temperature centrifugal molten-salt pump
LI Qing,KANG Can*,ZHU Yang
Two centrifugal molten salt pumps with single- and double-volute were designed under the same operating condition. Then, transient flow fields within two pumps were simulated and the tempe-rature distribution in the rotor was analyzed by using ANSYS to clarify the influence of volute structure on operational stability when the pumps transporting high-temperature molten salt. The stress, defor-mation and vibration mode were analyzed by employing fluid-thermal-structure coupling method after the calculated flow and temperature fields had been simultaneously applied to the rotor. The results indicate that the pressure load on blades is relieved and the axis-symmetry of the pressure distribution is improved within the double volute. The maximum deformation in the impeller and shaft is relatively large but also depends on shaft rotational angle significantly within the single-volute. Compared with the single-volute, the maximum equivalent stress in the impeller in the double-volute is larger, ho-wever, the maximum equivalent stress in the shaft is at a lower level. The rotor can meet the requirements of structural strength in the flow fields with two volutes under normal operating conditions.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 15-20 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3911KB] ( 91 )
21 Influence of blade camber profile on hydraulic performance of slurry pump and impeller wear characteristic
LI Jing,ZHANG Renhui,*,GUO Rong,LI Rennian,
The slurry pump of type LC100/350 was used as a studied object to investigate into influences of blade camber profile on pump hydraulic performance and impeller wear characteristic in terms of limestone-water slurry as transported medium. A logarithmic spiral with variable angle was selected to parameterize the camber profile when the impeller meridional plan and blade inlet and outlet angles remain unchanged. The relationships of both hydraulic performance and wear characteristic with camber profile were analyzed numerically in Fluent 16.0 by using discrete phase model(DPM)model. The results show that the cylindrical blade designed by the logarithmic spiral method with variable angle can improve the pump hydraulic efficiency, but will lead to a slightly reduction in the head. The blade camber profile with wrap angle of 120° is the optimal one in four design cases proposed. The pump hydraulic performance and the impeller wear characteristic have been linked each other for the different camber profiles. A small wrap angle impairs the pump hydraulic performance but relieves the impeller wear. The impeller wear intensity is positively correlated with solid volumetric concentration, and the most severely worn regions on the impeller are in the area on the hub in front of the blade leading edges. The influence of blade wrap angle on impeller wear intensity at high flow rates is much more signi-ficant than under design condition and at low flow rates. The influences of solid particle size on hydraulic performance and impeller wear characteristic are basically consistent with those of solid concentration.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 21-27 [Abstract] ( 17 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4948KB] ( 121 )
28 Experiment investigation into measures for eliminating hump in head curve of IS type centrifugal pumps
CHEN Yan,WANG Tianzhou,BAI Xiaobang,LUO Shaohua,ZHANG Yongxiang
Experiments showed that there was a hump in the head curve of a single-stage end-suction centrifugal pump. To eliminate the hump and improve the stability of the curve, three measures were taken:(1)reducing impeller inlet diameter and blade outlet width,(2)installing two baffles arranged symmetrically in the suction nozzle, and(3)adding one baffle in the nozzle only. The tested results showed that measure(1)made the shape of the head curve almost unchanged, thus the hump was still present, just as a whole the head suffered from a certain amount of reduction. This suggests measure(1)generates no obviously positive effect on the hump elimination. After measure(2)or(3)was taken, the hump in the head curve almost disappeared, but also the losses in the head and efficiency were minor. The effect of these two measures on eliminating the hump was significant. To validate measure(3)further, the performance curves of another single-stage end-suction centrifugal pump with and without a baffle were tested. The tested data revealed that the added baffle resulted in the hump eliminated basically with a slight loss in the pump performance only, and the effectiveness of the treatment has been confirmed.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 28-31 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1148KB] ( 86 )
32 Influence of blade trailing edge orientation on pressure fluctuation in double-volute of marine pump
CAO Ruijia,KONG Xiangxu*,ZHOU Yisong,SUN Jinru
Fluid pressure fluctuation induced by a rotating impeller when sweeping the tongue of volute is one chief reason for vibration and noise in marine pumps. To reduce the pressure fluctuation, two types of impellers were designed, one with tilted blade trailing edge with respect to the hub surface, one with blade trailing edge perpendicular to the hub surface, and then involved in the identical double-volute of a prototype centrifugal pump. The pressure fluctuations at nine monitoring points within the volute were analyzed in detail by carrying out experiments and numerical simulations. The simulated results indicated that the tilted blade trailing edge could eliminate the pressure fluctuation in the volute at high frequencies but also could reduce the fluctuation amplitude at blade passing frequency further. However, the pressure coefficient at monitoring points b and e, which are located in the fourth cross-sections of the volute, was intensified; additionally, the frequencies for the peak amplitudes were different from those with blade trailing edge perpendicular to the hub surface. Two kinds of blade trailing edge had a similar effect on the pressure fluctuation at the volute outlet. Thus, a tilted blade trailing edge with respect to the hub surface can reduce the pressure fluctuation in the volute due to impeller-tongue interaction effectively.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 32-38 [Abstract] ( 20 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4332KB] ( 88 )
39 Finite element analysis of stress, deformation and modal of head cover in axial-flow hydro-turbine
YAO Tingting,ZHENG Yuan*
One-way fluid-structure coupling computations were carried out on the head cover of an axial-flow hydro-turbine under different working conditions. Firstly, an accurate hydraulic pressure distribution on the head cover was secured with ANSYS CFX at different operating points. Then finite element analysis was performed on the head cover in ANSYS Workbench by loading the pressure distribution onto the wet surface of the cover. Finally, the static stress and deformation distributions in the head cover were obtained under each working condition. Additionally, modal analyses of the head cover with and without prestress were launched, and its natural frequency and mode shape were realized. The results show that under different working conditions all the maximum static stress and displacement appear in the area between two ribs in the bottom plate and rise with increasing hydraulic head. The natural frequencies of the head cover in prestressed state are less than 0.5% higher than those without prestress, as such the prestress effect can be neglected. Compared with various frequencies of hydraulic exciting forces, the natural frequencies of the head cover differ from them significantly, suggesting a less possibility of resonance. The results provide an effective basis for stress and vibration examinations of the head cover in axial-flow hydro-turbines and offer a reference for structural optimization design of the cover.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 39-44 [Abstract] ( 18 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4999KB] ( 103 )
45 Numerical simulation of cavitation turbulence in Francis turbine runner with splitter blades
WANG Huiyan,LIU Xiaobing*,JIANG Qifeng,HUA Hong,OU Shunbing
Cavitation will reduce the turbine performance and even damage the turbine components. To verify the effects of splitter blades in improving the cavitation performance, the cavitation flow inside a Francis turbine runner with splitter blades was numerically simulated by using the Singhal cavitation model and the standard k-ε turbulence model. The distributions of static pressure and gas volume fractions on the surface of the runner blades were predicated at different conditions, and the cavitation in the flow field of the runner was analyzed. The results show that the static pressure and gas volume fractions are more uniformly distributed on the short blades than those on the long blades in Francis turbines with splitter blades, and there is almost no cavitation on the short blades; their distributions are more uniform at small flow conditions than those at large flow conditions; and large gas volume fractions are concentrated at the outlet tip near the band on the suction side of the long blade. The installation of splitter blades can improve the cavitation performance of conventional Francis turbines.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 45-51 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 20660KB] ( 91 )
52 Development and application of road gutter entry basket filters
DONG Hao*,LI Wei
Cleaning work of road gutter entry was surveyed in terms of gutter entry configuration, debris type and feature in the old town of Xi'an city, and the collected data in one year were analyzed statistically to improve debris cleaning and intercepting effectiveness of road gutter entry and reduce cleaning workload. At first, the development, application, advantages and disadvantages of domestic and foreign rainwater road gutter entry filters were reviewed. According to the existing popular gutter entry structure in Xi′an city and a formula for estimating rainstorm flow rate, an initial filter with sieve and grid was designed. Then, specific structures and materials were compared and selected, and field tests were followed. Eventually, a basket filter that is applicable to the drainage system of Xi'an city was determined. Based on application trials, this kind of filter can intercept debris into the basket effectively without impaired drain function. When the gutter entries are being cleaned, the height of residual debris in the gutter well is reduced to less than 50 mm from 150 mm before filter installation(sieve with 10 mm diameter holes, grid with 10 mm spacing). Obviously, when the cleaning measures remain unchanged, the frequency of cleaning should be reduced, accordingly, the time interval between cleanings will be extended.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 52-57 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 5324KB] ( 72 )
58 Experimental study on friction factors for water flow in smooth pipe flow under negative pressure
FANG Yujian*,YUAN Shouqi,ZHAO Liwei,ZHANG Jinfeng
In order to investigate the internal mechanism why the siphon inlet has achieved a significant effect in solving the problems of some water transportation projects, some early pipe resis-tance tests had been performed by considering with and without air-traps on an undulating pipe layout in our laboratory, the friction factor measured from a DN50 pipe made of transparent acrylic tube was found far below the value estimated from Moody Chart. But this conclusion is not convincible due to there are the influence of so many bends and spherical valves in the tested undulating pipe layout, therefore a simple long straight siphon layout with a multi-hole bottom valve at its inlet was constructed in the laboratory, an experimental study on the friction factor of this circular pipe under negative pressure has been studied further. The whole pipeline was made of acrylic tube, so it can be treat as hydraulically smooth pipe. The friction factor had been derived from the measurements of the pressure difference of two taps with an interval of 18.4 m located on its straight section under various discharges, not only a lower friction factor has been obtained than that from previous researchers, but also it shows a different trend against the Reynolds number variation, therefore it is concluded that the negative pressure has an important impact on the pipe flow.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 58-61 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4800KB] ( 76 )
62 Analysis of internal flow in 90° square section curved duct based on hybrid RANS/LES models
WANG Ying,DONG Liang*,LIU Houlin,SHANG Huanhuan,PAN Qi
When Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS)method is applied to simulate flow fields under the action of centrifugal force, it can fail to sufficient accuracy. Thus, hybrid RANS/LES(large eddy simulation)method(LES)is proposed to improve the accuracy, where RANS is for modelling flow near a wall and LES is for simulating flow behaviour far away from the wall. In this paper, two kinds of RANS/LES models, such as DDES and SAS, were selected to simulate the flow field in a 90° square section curved duct where the action of centrifugal force is dominant to fully understand effects of the force on flow field information such as flow velocity profile, pressure distribution and flow structure in the elbow. The predicted circumferential velocity profiles in cross-sections and the longitudinal distributions of pressure coefficient on the concave surface were compared with the experimental results. Furthermore, the instantaneous flow structure and turbulent kinetic energy distributions were contrasted between two models. It is showed that the velocity profiles and pressure coefficient curves predicted with DDES is similar to those with SAS, however, the results near the wall with the former are even closer to the measurement than with the latter. In terms of the scale distribution of small eddies near the wall, DDES can obtain multiscale small eddies close to the wall, while SAS can capture irregular small eddies adherent to the wall only. For the turbulent kinetic energy field, DDES can represent the low turbulent kinetic energy region at the intersection of four vortices predicted theoretically, but SAS fails to obtain this phenomenon.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 62-68 [Abstract] ( 17 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3790KB] ( 91 )
69 Optimization of structural parameters of fan-shaped high-pressure nozzle
LIANG Bojian,GAO Dianrong*
Effects of structure parameters of a fan-shaped high-pressure nozzle on jet performance were simulated numerically and confirmed experimentally. The structural parameters include divergent angle, inner conical hole depth and convergent angle, and the jet performance is in terms of jet coverage angle and flow rate. The quadratic rotation orthogonal combination design method was utilized to set up design cases based on three structural parameters and their five levels, and then the cases were analyzed in CFD software-Fluent; finally, the CFD results were subject to statistical significance test and analysis of variance(ANOVA), consequently the corresponding regression equations were established. the optimized structural parameters were determined from these regression equations by using response surface method combined with weighting method. The results show that the effect of inner conical hole depth on the performance is the most significant(P<0.000 1). When the divergent angle, inner conical hole depth, and convergent angle are 68°, 8 mm and 65°, respectively, the flow rate and coverage angle increase to 27.8L/min and 45.3°. Under this condition, the fan-shaped nozzle performance is significantly improved, and a better cleaning effect should be secured.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 69-75 [Abstract] ( 16 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3201KB] ( 99 )
76 Fluid mechanics modeling and flow characteristics analysis of secondary wall thickening reticulated vessels in vascular plants
XU Tianyu,ZHANG Lixiang*
Effects of inner diameter, number of helical curls, spacing of helical curls, helical curl height and width in secondary wall thickening reticulated vessels on water transport in the xylem of vascular plants were analyzed in terms of pressure drop and equivalent hydraulic loss coefficient(flow resistance coefficient)by using computational fluid dynamics(CFD)combined with the Bernoulli equation to study micro-flow mechanism in the vessels. The results showed that the total pressure drop and flow resistance coefficient were increased by 16.34% and 26.45%, respectively, with increasing number of helical curls. With increasing helical curl spacing, however, the total pressure drop and flow resistance coefficient were decreased by 5.49% and 9.83%. The total pressure drop and flow resistance coefficient rose by 33.89% and 57.96% as the helical curl height was increased. Additionally, the total pressure drop and flow resistance coefficient ascended by 9.56% and 15.30% with increasing helical curl width. The interaction between helical reticulated curl structure and flow recirculation region in the vessels, especially the recirculation region, was mainly responsible for the effects of the secondary wall thickening on the water transport. Compared with three different thickening vessels, the helical reticulated curl vessel was subject to the greatest flow resistance, and the helical curl vessel was with the smallest resistance, but the flow resistance in the annular vessel was in between. The flow resistance was proportional to vessel inner diameter in three thickening vessels. The larger the inner diameter of a thickening vessel, the closer the transport efficiency of the vessel to that of an ideal smooth vessel.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 76-82 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 5755KB] ( 101 )
83 Influence of irrigation quota and frequency on root growth and yield of processing tomato
ZHANG Kun,DIAO Ming,JING Bo,ZHANG Xiaoqian,WAN Wenliang,GUO Pengfei,HAN Wen
The effect of irrigation quota and frequency on root growth and yield of processing tomato(H1015)under mulch drip irrigation was studied experimentally to understand their response mechanisms to different irrigation systems in Northwest China. Three irrigation quotas(W1-100%ET0, W2-75%ET0; W3-50%ET0, ET0-reference crop evapotranspiration)and two frequency levels(F1-three times a week; F2-once a week)were used in the experiment. The experimental results show that the roots of processing tomato are mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer(63.20%-85.67% estimated), and the root growth and dry matter quality gradually are decreased with increasing soil depth. The conventional irrigation frequency(F2)and small irrigation quota(W3)can promote the roots to develop into deep soil, but the high frequency irrigation(F1)and large irrigation quota(W2)can be in favor of roots distributed within a relatively shallow layer of soil. The soil water content under high frequency irrigation shows a less fluctuation and remains within a stable range in comparison with conventional frequency irrigation. Meanwhile, the soil volumetric moisture, leaf area index, dry weight and yield rise with increasing irrigation quota and frequency. At the same irrigation frequency, there is no statistically significant difference in tomato yield between large and medium quotas(P>0.05), but significant between large and small quotas(P<0.05). With comprehensive consideration of root growth, yield and water resource saving, the nearly optimum irrigation system for processing tomato in Northwest China should be 75% ET0 irrigation quota, once a week irrigation frequency in seedling period, three times a week irrigation frequency in flowering to fruiting periods.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 83-89 [Abstract] ( 15 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2077KB] ( 109 )
90 Effects of sowing density on growth, yield of potato under drip irrigation
WANG Yan,LIU Chang,LI Yunkai,GU Tao,SU Yanping*
A field test was carried out to study effects of sowing density on potato yield, growth and water use efficiency under drip irrigation with cultivator in Heilongjiang province, China, and eventually identify the best sowing density for potato with high yield and good quality. The crop was grown with three sowing densities, namely 7.28(104 plants/hm2)(RS25), 6.67(104 plants/hm2)(RS35)and 5.55(104 plants/hm2)(CK). Results show that with increasing sowing density all the potato plant height, stem thickness, commodity potato rate and dry matter accumulation exhibit a decreasing tendency. The potato yield and water use efficiency rise with increasing density but start to decline at a density. As a result, RS35 leads to the highest yield and water use efficiency, such as 47325 kg/m3 and 12.05 kg/hm2, respectively. Regarding potato quality, the effect of sowing density on potato crude protein content is not statistically significant. The starch and Vc contents go down sharply with increase of the density, especially, both contents are decreased by 5.57% and 7.96%, respectively, in RS25, compared with CK; unfortunately, there is no statistically significant difference between them. Thus, sowing density 6.67×104 plants/hm2 in RS35 leads to higher yield, finer tuber quality and better water use efficiency, it is a more suitable sowing density in Heilongjiang province under drip irrigation.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 90-94 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2253KB] ( 107 )
95 Geometric parameters design and experimental study of a new type drip emitter
LI Jialu,BAI Dan*,WANG Xinduan,GUO Lin
The geometric parameters defining the flow passage of a new type drip emitter were selected to be design variables, and 16 cases were designed by using orthogonal experimental design method, and their hydraulic performance was tested at six operating pressures ranged in 50-250 kPa to identify the hydraulic characteristics and influences of these geometric parameters on them. The experimental results showed that the power, usually called flow regime index, in the flow rate-pressure relationships of 16 cases is in the range of 0.475-0.498, suggesting a rather good hydraulic performance. Based on range analysis on the results, it was found that the distance between the second baffle plate and the second orifice plate induces the greatest influence on the flow regime index, while the distance between the first baffle plate and the first orifice plate is responsible for the least influence. A regression model of the flow regime index with seven geometric parameters was established by employing multiple linear regression, and the followed analysis of variance showed that the correlation of the model is good. In terms of t-test, the distance between the first water baffle plate and the side wall, the central aperture of the first orifice plate and the distance between the second baffle plate and the second orifice plate have a significant effect on the flow regime index. Meanwhile, the verification test confirmed that the error between predictions and measurements is less than 5%. Thus, the flow regime index can be predicted accurately and reliably.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 95-101 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3055KB] ( 94 )
102 Applicability of four kinds of artificial intelligent models to prediction of reference crop evapotranspiration in Jiangxi province
LIU Xiaohua,WEI Bingqian*,WU Lifeng,YANG Po
A highly precise estimate of reference crop evapotranspiration(ET0)in absence of some meteorological data is on demand. Based on daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures Tmax and Tmin, sunshine hours n, relative humidity, RH, and wind speed at 2 m height, u2, during 1966—2015 in Nanchang, Ji′an and Longnan meteorological stations in Jiangxi province, four artificial intelligent(AI)models for predicting ET0 are established in terms of different combinations of six meteorological elements by using FAO-56 Penman-Monteith(P-M)formula as standard. The predicted results are compared with those calculated by empirical method. The results show that the MARS model has the highest accuracy in three stations but also its computation procedure is simple; eventually, it is the recommended method for estimating ET0 in the province. If the input data are complete, four mo-dels can achieve the best accuracy, indicating all the models are applicable to ET0 prediction. In absence of some input data, the influence of meteorological elements on ET0 estimation from the most important to the least important is as follows: Tmax>Tmin>n>RH>u2. Compared with the traditional empirical formulas, the accuracy of four AI models is better for the same input data.
2020 Vol. 38 (1): 102-108 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2042KB] ( 99 )


· Call for paper of The 14th Asian International Conference on Fluid Machinery(AICFM14)
· Call for paper of the 2nd International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2016)
· JDIME have be selected for the 2015-2016 China Science Citation Database (CSCD)
· CALL FOR PAPERS and 2nd ANNOUNCEMENT"The 7th International Conference on Pumps and Fans(ICPF2015)"
· The journal won the first prize of "excellent China sciencepaper online journal" again
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· A New Column “Irrigation and Drainage Equipment Manufacturing Technology”Setting Up


· Lansheng Group
· Taifeng Pumps
· National Research Center of Pumps

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