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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
2019 Vol.37 Issue.6
Published 2019-06-25

2019 Vol. 37 (6): 1- [Abstract] ( 112 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2387KB] ( 147 )
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 2- [Abstract] ( 102 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 254KB] ( 115 )
461 Effect of blade perforation near inlet edge on the cavitation performance of centrifugal pump
ZHAO Weiguo,,PAN Xuwei,*,SONG Qice,,LI Shangsheng,
In order to explore the influence of the blade perforation near the inlet edge on cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, a low specific-speed centrifugal pump was selected as the research object. Ten different sizes of pores were designed in the same place of blade inlet edge in the centrifugal pump. Based on SST k-ω turbulent model and Zwart cavitation model, under the condition of water medium, 10 different impellers were numerically simulated in the full flow passage and compared with the experimental results. The research shows that the blade perforation with the diameter of 8 mm near the inlet edge whose bubbles generates firstly improves not only head and efficiency but also cavitation performance remarkably. The blade perforation divides the general cavitation region into two in every flow passage. With the increase of pore, the low pressure area in runner reduces, then increases. The distribution of low-pressure area is the smallest when the diameter is 8 mm near the blade inlet edge. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation of perforated blade is apparently larger than that of prototype blade. With the increase of perforated position distance,the influence of perforated blade on flow field gradually decreases and disappeares completely at last in the volute.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 461-468 [Abstract] ( 135 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3900KB] ( 167 )
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 469-474 [Abstract] ( 170 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2345KB] ( 133 )
475 Influence of blade wrap angle on characteristics of mixed flow pump as turbine
YANG Sunsheng,SHAO Ke*,DAI Tao
Numerical simulation was adoped and the blade wrap angles were 45°, 65°,75°,85°,95° and 105° when impellers′ other geometric parameters remained the same. We studied how the change of the blade wrap angles influences PATs. The results show that with the increase of the blade wrap angles, the liquid flow is closer to the blade profile. The vortex in the impeller channel inside in improved. The turbine′s high-efficiency curves shift toward the small flow rate area, the high efficiency region becomes smaller and the head curve and shaft power curve are getting steeper. The blade′s constraint on the flow is enhanced with the increase of blade wrap angles, so that the hydraulic loss in the small flow area is reduced, but the runner is lengthened, so that the friction loss is increased. With the augment of the blade wrap angles, the hydraulic loss increases in the mass flow area so that there is a best blade wrap angles. This result can provide some guidance to the design of the mixed-flow pump as turbines.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 475-479 [Abstract] ( 157 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 5432KB] ( 154 )
480 Pressure fluctuation and fluid-solid coupling in reverse generation of large axial flow pump
ZHOU Ying,ZHENG Yuan*,HE Zhongwei,SUN Aoran,ZHANG Fulin,WANG Haolan
In order to study the stability of the reverse power generation of a pumping station unit in the East Route of the South to North Water Diversion Project, the full numerical simulation of the flow channel was carried out to study the pressure fluctuation and stress distribution in the reverse power generation. Monitoring points in three sections of guide vane inlet, runner inlet and outlet were set up. The results show that the time domain diagram of pressure pulsation at the inlet and outlet of the inlet of the axial flow pump shows periodic variation under the reverse generating condition. The frequency of pressure pulsation is influenced by the frequency of runner and concentrated at low frequency. The flow pressure fluctuating in the middle and edge of the inlet of the runner is obvious. The maximum pressure pulsation occurs at the middle of the runner outlet. The amplitude of the pressure pulsation is nearly 3 times the outlet edge of the runner, and it is nearly 2 times the middle and edge of the inlet of the runner. At the impeller outlet, the pressure pulsation increases from hub to rim. The results of fluid solid coupling show that the total deformation of the blade is mainly distributed in the inlet side of the blade, and the deformation increases gradually along the wheel hub to the wheel edge, and the stress mainly concentrates on the blade pressure surface and the root of the suction surface, and the maximum equi-valent stress appears at the impeller root of the suction surface of the blade. The maximum equivalent stress value does not affect the life and damage of the runner unit in the safety range of blade material.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 480-485 [Abstract] ( 299 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3013KB] ( 142 )
486 Measuring method of motor efficiency of pump system
GU Zukun,YUAN Jianping*,LUO Yin,SHI Yang
The energy relationship of motor was derived to measure the the efficiency of the pump motor. The results show that the motor efficiency is related to the input power and running current of the motor. The calculation formula of motor operating efficiency was obtained. The standard test data of six different types of three-phase asynchronous motor were used to conduct a theoretical verification. The input power and running current of the motor were adopted in the calculation of operating efficiency, and compared with the the actual efficiency of the motor. The results show that the overall error between the calculation efficiency and the actual operating efficiency of the motor is less than 1.8%. To further prove the reliability of the scheme, the centrifugal pump test bench was designed to verify the test. The motor end load was controlled by adjusting the pump valve opening degree to obtain the motor calculation efficiency under different working conditions. The test results show that the error between calculation efficiency and the test efficiency value is less than 1.06%. Compared with the general test method, the program can calculate the operating efficiency quickly and accurately by reading its input power and current while the motor is running, without measuring other data or stopping the measurement, which greatly improves measurement efficiency.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 486-490 [Abstract] ( 193 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1621KB] ( 152 )
491 Numerical simulation of breast wall with pressure section of spillway sluice
YUE Shubo, ZHANG Hongqing*, DIAO Mingjun, DAI Shangyi
The RNG k-ε turbulent numerical model was adopted to simulate the flow characteristic of the breast wall with different slope pressure sections at the exit of the spillway sluice. The streamline, the flow velocity and the pressure were obtained to analyze the different influences of the different slopes on the discharge capacity of the spillway, the phenomenon of current off the wall and the distribution of the negative pressure. The results show that the discharge capacity is weakened, the phenomenon of current off the wall is avoided, and the maximum and distribution area of the negative pressure are lessened, when the slope of the pressure section becomes sharp. Flat slope type should be avoided in the design process. By a reasonable way, we can select a suitable type for a project is beneficial to improve the efficiency of energy dissipation of stilling basin and avoid the cavitation erosion of the pressure slope section, so as to enhance the security of the project. The results and the methods can provide particular guidance to the optimization design and operation of the similar projects.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 491-497 [Abstract] ( 170 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4707KB] ( 146 )
498 Experiment on effect ofrock fragment cover on slope erodibility of saline-sodic soil in costal reclamation area
WANG Hongde,, XU Xiaoming, SHE Dongli,
The effects of rock fragments cover(RC)on the saline-sodic soil erosion and the interrill erodibility were investigated through simulated rainfall with two intensities(92 mm/h, 119 mm/h), two slope gradients(15%, 30%), and six rock fragments covers(0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%). Results showed that with the increase of cumulative rainfall, the soil erodibility increased first, then decreased and tended to be stable. The soil erodibility was significantly increased with slope gra-dient. The soil erodibility varied non-monotonically with RC. In the condition of deeper slope and lower RC, soil erodibility increased with RC; while infiltration rate increased, runoff rate and soil erodibility decreased with RC when RC was higher. The appropriate RC could change the roughness of slope surface and reduce the soil erodibility. A significant negative linear correlation existed between Reynolds number of runoff and soil erodibility on the slope with rock fragments cover. Quantitative analysis of li-near relationship between Reynolds number and soil erodibility can reflect hydrodynamics process of saline-sodic soil on slope surface, which is of significance to building a prediction model of sediment transport in saline-sodic soil slope.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 498-503 [Abstract] ( 167 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2564KB] ( 126 )
504 Influence of temperature of frictional parts on dynamic friction load in pneumatic disc brake
ZHANG Xiliang, LIU Ning*,GU Yangyang,WENG Qianwen,XU Yunfeng,LUO Yimin
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 504-507 [Abstract] ( 149 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3302KB] ( 137 )
508 Opening characteristics of three eccentric butterfly valve based on CFD moving grid technology
HE Qingzhong,LIU Yucong*,ZHAO Xiandan,LIU Jia
In order to analyze the relationship between eddy current and time in the opening process of three eccentric butterfly valve, a two-dimensional physical model based on three eccentric butterfly valve was established by using the calculation method provided by Fluent software, and the UDF functions at different times were compiled. The eddy street phenomenon in the opening process of three eccentric butterfly valve was analyzed by using dynamic grid technology and user-defined functions. Numerical simulation was carried out to obtain the vortex velocity and vortex length at different times after opening. The results show that the throat effect is produced in the down flow of the butterfly valve when the three eccentric butterfly valve is just opened. The vibration of the butterfly valve is strong because of the large flow resistance under the small opening of the fluid medium. With the increase of the ope-ning, the flow resistance decreases sharply, and the vibration of the butterfly valve gradually weakens. As a result, strong eddy currents occur around the edge of the three eccentric butterfly plate, and obvious vortex street effect appears at the lower end. With the increase of opening stroke, the eddy velocity decreases continuously, and the eddy length increases first, then slowly decreases, and finally disappears. The flow field of butterfly valve was simulated by finite element method, and the time of vortex street formation and shedding was found. This simulation provides a train of thought for the design, test and use of the three eccentric butterfly valve.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 508-512 [Abstract] ( 155 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2102KB] ( 121 )
513 Influence of liquid water content on wind turbine blade icing by numerical simulation
LI Yan*, SUN Ce, JIANG Yu, YI Xian, GUO Wenfeng, WANG Shaolong, FENG Fang
In order to research the influence of liquid water content(LWC)on blade icing of wind turbine, a numerical simulation method for blade icing was established. The numerical simulation was based on low speed viscous N-S equation. The trajectory equation of water droplets was established by Lagrangian method. The mass and energy conservation equations of the water droplets impacting on the surface of the blade were solved based on control body theory. Three sections along blade span wise of a 1.5 MW wind turbine were decided to simulate icing. Five kinds of LWC were selected for simulation including 0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8 and 1.0 g/m3 under two ambient temperatures of -10 ℃ and -20 ℃. The medium volume droplet diameter(MVD)was 30 SymbolmA@m. The simulations included icing shape on blade surface, dimensionless icing area and dimensionless maximum stagnation thickness. Furthermore, the flow fields around both the iced blade airfoil and the original one were simulated and analyzed. Accor-ding to the results, the typical icing characteristics of icing shape, icing area and thickness were greatly affected by the difference of LWCs. This study can provide theoretical reference for the research on anti-icing and de-icing of wind turbine blade.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 513-520 [Abstract] ( 133 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3846KB] ( 141 )
521 Influence of needle-ring electrode configuration on induction charging spray
LIU Jianhe, LI Xingguang*, XU Yanming
In order to fully understand the influence of needle-ring electrode configuration on the pro-perties of charged droplets in electro-spray, the software Ansoft Maxwell was taken as a tool, the diffe-rent needle-ring configurations were simulated, and the electrostatic distribution pattern can be achieved from the simulation results. Based on the simulation results, combined with the induction charging principle, we made some experiments on the influence of the electrode configuration on ato-mized droplets properties. The results show that the electric field intensity around the spray needle is the highest and decreases rapidly along the axial direction under all the spray needle-annular electrode configurations. The electric field intensity around the spray needle increases with the increase of charging voltage or the change of the relevant geometrical size of the electrode configurations. Among the electrode parameters investigated, when the spray needle length is 25 mm and the annular electrode thickness is 4 mm, the electric field intensity obtained is the highest and the induction charging effect is the best. The difference of relative position between the spray needle and the annular electrode will lead to a great difference in the direction of electric field, which will lead to different trajectories of droplets. The simulation results provide the design basis and theoretical basis for the rational configuration of electrode structure and the atomization effect of induction charged spray.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 521-527 [Abstract] ( 182 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 8579KB] ( 161 )
528 Numerical simulation of cavitation flow in whole flow path of water-jet propulsor
CEN Chunhai, PAN Zhongyong*, WANG Xuebao
In order to reveal the distribution of cavitation inside the water-jet propulsor, the SST k-ω turbulence model and the Zwart cavitation model, based on the ANSYA CFX software, were used to calculate the steady value of the whole flow path of the water-jet propulsor at different speeds. The vo-lume fraction distribution of bubbles in two-stage impeller blades and the flow path in the water-jet propulsor at different speeds was obtained. The results show that the cavitation occurred initially in the local low-pressure zone at the leading edge of the front impeller suction surface. As the speed increases, the bubbles spread from the leading edge to the hub, and the volume fraction gradually increases. owing to the impact of non-uniform flow, the rear impeller suction surface in the middle of the low-pressure area begins to appear cavitation. With the increasing of the rotational speed, the cavitation is expanded from the middle of the blade to the outlet, and the cavitation is more serious in the lower half of flow path of the rear impeller. Under different NPSHr, there is no cavitation in the rear impeller pressure surface due to the pre-pressing of the front impeller, which shows that the counter-rotating axial-flow water-jet propulsor has good cavitation performance.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 528-533 [Abstract] ( 167 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3612KB] ( 143 )
534 Effect of pipeline layout of fertilizer applicator on performance of Venturi injector
WANG Haitao,, WANG Jiandong*, YANG Bin, GUO Shanqiang, MO Yan,ZHANG Yanqun
To explore the effect of different pipeline layouts in fertilizer applicator on Venturi injectors performance, multi-channel fertilizer applicators were tested with five same Venturi injectors for diffe-rent main pipe pressure and two pipeline layout modes. The results showed that compared with bypass-pushing-fertilizer pipeline, the numbers of Venturi injector channels with high efficiency can be dominated by bypass-pulling-fertilizer pipeline, up to a maximum of six. What′s more, bypass-pulling-fertilizer pipeline layout mode can meet accurate ratio fertilization of more various nutrient medium si-multaneously, and it can be applied to drip irrigation system that has a wider range of main pipe pressure compared with bypass-pushing-fertilizer mode. When the number of channels is less than 3, the ave-rage suction amount of single channel for bypass-pushing-fertilizer mode decreases with the increase of pressure, however, the average suction amount of single channel for bypass-pulling-ferti-lizer mode could keep stable. Under the same number of channels, the total suction volume flow and proportion of fertilizer injection for bypass-pulling-fertilizer mode are obviously higher than those for bypass-pushing-fertilizer mode, and ″three channels+ bypass-pulling-fertilizer mode″ can be recommended as an optimal pipeline layout mode for fertilizer applicator.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 534-539 [Abstract] ( 147 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2398KB] ( 146 )
540 Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on climate factor under uncertainty
DE Jiashuo, GUO Ping*, ZHANG Chenglong, YUE Qiong, SHAN Baoying
Based on the interval crop water production functions under uncertainty, spring wheat, corn, cotton and honey dew melon were selected as study crops. Then the optimal allocation of water resources model in the Minqin irrigation region under uncertainty was established. Besides, to reflect the impact of climate change on irrigation water allocation, the uncertainty of meteorological factors(ET0 and RH)was also introduced in the model. The results show that the economic benefits per unit water of corn is low in the Minqin irrigation region and its optimal irrigation quota is larger than the current irrigation quota. Cotton has the biggest economic benefits per unit water in the Minqin irrigation region, followed by honey dew melon. In the case of limited available water and the premise of ensuring food security, the irrigation water for cotton and honey dew melon should be ensured first to reduce the economic loss. The model including meteorological factors has a wider range of interval solutions, which reflects the impact of meteorological factors on water allocation. This study verifies the feasibility of the uncertainty method in practical application and provides a more reliable scientific basis for the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation areas.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 540-544 [Abstract] ( 146 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1674KB] ( 168 )
545 Evaluation on applicability of global solar radiation calculation model in Northwest China
ZHANG Yixuan, CUI Ningbo,*, FENG Yu,, YUE Jinhua, WANG Jun, LIU Shuangmei
To effectively improve the prediction accuracy of Rs in Northwest China, the daily climate data collected from 11 representive meteorological stations during 1959—2015 were used to estimate Rs. Four kinds of sunshine-based models(Angstrom-Prescott, Ogelman, Bahel and Louche model)and two kinds of temperature-based models(Hargreaves and Bristow-Campbell model)were evaluated in four sub-zones: the temperate continental high temperature-arid zone, the temperate continental arid zone, the plateau continental semiarid zone and the temperate monsoon semiarid zone. The results show that the estimate Rs results of each model has a significant correlation with the measured value at the 0.001 level. Generally, the applicability of sunshine-based model(with R2 ranging from 0.901 to 0.903)is better than that of temperature-based model(with R2 ranging from 0.695 to 0.719). Among the 4 sunshine-based models, Bahel model shows the best performance, with R2 of 0.903, MAE of 1.624 MJ/(m2·d), MRE of 15.7%, RMSE of 2.298 MJ/(m2·d)and NSE of 0.902. The most accurate temperature-based model is Bristow-Campbell model, with R2 of 0.719, MAE of 2.851 MJ/(m2·d), MRE of 30.7%, RMSE of 3.959 MJ/(m2·d)and NSE of 0.713. Overall, the Bahel model is recommended to estimate daily and monthly Rs when only the sunshine duration data are avai-lable in Northwest China and the Bristow-Campbell model is recommended to estimate Rs when only temperature data are available.
2019 Vol. 37 (6): 545-552 [Abstract] ( 193 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3581KB] ( 191 )


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