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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2018 Vol.36 Issue.10
Published 2018-10-25

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2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1- [Abstract] ( 154 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2926KB] ( 249 )
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2018 Vol. 36 (10): 2- [Abstract] ( 165 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1295KB] ( 215 )
925 Response of maize root growth dynamics to drip irrigation amount
WANG Jun, LI Jiusheng*, LI Yanfeng, HAO Fengzhen, QIU Zhenjie
The spatial and temporal dynamics of root growth determines the ability of crop roots water uptake. Two-year continuous pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of irrigation amount on the dynamics of soil water content and root growth as well as the distribution in the soil profile. In this pot experiment, three irrigation levels were designed, i.e. 100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirement ETc. The results showed that the root length density of maize decreased gradually with the increase of soil depth and horizontal distance from the dripper. The maize root length density varied during the growth stages, the minimum root length density at the jointing stage, the highest in the heading-milk stage, and then decreased in the late mature stage. Less difference of root length density was found among the treatments in the vertical direction in the jointing stage. The root length density of treatment 75%ETc at the depth of 0-40 cm was greater than that of treatments 50% and 100%ETc by 8% and 26% in the heading-milk stage, respectively. In the mature stage, the root length density at the depth of 0-60 cm of treatment 50%ETc was the highest. It was greater than that of trea tments 75% and 100%ETc by 51% and 40%, respectively. In the horizontal direction, root length density of treatments 50% and 75%ETcwere higher than that of treatment 100%ETc by 29% in jointing and heading-milk stages. In the mature stage, the root length density of treatment 50%ETcin the horizontal direction was the biggest. It was greater than that of 75% and 100%ETc by 52% and 40%, respectively. 
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 925-930 [Abstract] ( 246 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1931KB] ( 172 )
931 Diagnosis of water shortage in key growth period of rice based on canopy temperature
ZHAO Yangbo,, TONG Daobin, WANG Jingcai, ZHOU Mingyao*, HUANG Qiuge
Canopy temperature is an important index to analyze crop water demand. Taking rice in Chuanhang Irrigation Area as the experimental crop, its water requirement was tested at three key stages of rice growth: tillering stage, jointing and booting stage, flowering and fruiting stage from July to October in 2014. This experiment not only studied the relationship between rice canopy temperature, air temperature and soil moisture content but also proposed the diagnosis method of crop water shor-tage. The results showed that the variation trend of canopy temperature in sunny days varied greatly with air temperature, while in rainy days varied little difference. It related to the high evapotranspiration intensity of rice in sunny days and the low evapotranspiration intensity in rainy days. The canopy-air temperature difference in the heading and flowering stage was positive in midday, but negative at other times, while that in the mature stage was positive and maximum at noon. Compared with the canopy-air temperature differences with the appropriate moisture content limits at different stages of rice growing periods, when the canopy-air temperature differences of direct seeding rice and transplanting seeding rice were both greater than 1.5 ℃ in the jointing and booting stage, and they were greater than 2.4 ℃ and 2.5 ℃, respectively, in the flowering and fruiting period, the soil water content reached the crop growing stress level, and the rice should be irrigated. By monitoring canopy temperature, the rice water shortage could be conveniently obtained.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 931-936 [Abstract] ( 346 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1756KB] ( 177 )
937 Response of greenhouse tomatoes to buried depth and low irrigation limit of small flow drip irrigation
WANG Xiao, YANG Peiling*, SU Yanping
The tomato variety “Zhong Yan 998” was used in the spring and autumn greenhouse of Tongzhou experimental station of China Agricultural University from March 2017 to July. A total of 6 treatments were conducted, including 3 irrigation lower limits(calculated with 85%,75%,65% of field water holding ratio)and 2 kinds of trace buried depth gradients(15 cm, 30 cm). The results showed that the influence regularity of buried depth and irrigation lower limit on tomato plant height was not obvious; deep burial treatment was more beneficial to the accumulation of stem dry matter, and the shallow burial was more beneficial to the accumulation of dry matter. Deep burial treatment is more conducive to the accumulation of stem dry matter in plants.Shallow burial is more conducive to the accumulation of dry matter in leaves, which indicates that the transpiration of shallow buried plants is greater. The influence regularity of buried depth and irrigation lower limit on root dry weight is not strong. Deep burial is more beneficial to increasing fruit yield, nitrogen apparent utilization and ferti-lizer partial productivity, and shallow burial is more beneficial to improving water use efficiency; the lower the irrigation limit, the higher the fruit yield, water use efficiency, nitrogen apparent utilization and partial productivity of fertilizer. Therefore, based on the results of this experiment, we can conclude that the depth of the planting is 30 cm, and the lower limit of irrigation is 65% of field water holding ratio which is most suitable for the growth of greenhouse tomatoes under this experimental condition.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 937-942 [Abstract] ( 278 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1743KB] ( 187 )
943 Effects of water stress on physiological characteristics during tomato seedlings period
HAO Shuxue, CAO Hongxia, WANG Hubing, PAN Xiaoyan
The aim of this study was to investigate the response on the physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under water stress, providing theoretical reference for the water management and irrigation schedule during tomato seedlings period. The tomato type which selected for experiment was “Changfeng No.5”, and there were four water levels: full irrigation, mild, moderate and severe water stress. The indexes were measured every five days for a total of 20 days. The results indicated that under the water stress condition, the maximal photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient(qP)and electron transport rate(ETR)decreased remarkably, and the performance of all the treatments was: T>T1>T2>T3. On the other hand, the stomatal density, length and width of T1, T2 and T3 decreased a lot compared to the control. Furthermore, the stomata deeply closed under severe water stress. The leaf antioxidant enzyme activities increased with the increasing of water stress levels. The physiological parameters that under the mild water stress have no obviously discrepancy compare to CK. Therefore, the reference irrigation regime: 50%~60% of field capacity can be used for reference in the tomato seedling stage.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 943-947 [Abstract] ( 432 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2568KB] ( 229 )
948 Effects of deficit irrigation on growth, fruit quality and yield of jujube tree
YITIKAER·Abudushalamu, ZHU Chengli*, LIU Zhipeng, JIANG Ping
In order to explore the effects of deficit irrigation in the flowering to fruit-setting stage on jujube trees in the oasis of south Xinjiang, seven-year old jujube trees were selected as experimental material. Treatments consisted of sufficient, low, moderate and severe deficit irrigation(irrigated with 100%(CK), 80%(T1), 60%(T2)and 40%(T3)of pan evaporation, respectively)in the flowe-ring to fruit-setting stage. The results indicated that water deficit significantly influences the growth rate of shedding shoots in the flowering to fruit-setting stage. With the increase of water stress, the inhibition of the shedding shoots aggravates. Deficit treatments significantly improve single fruit weight, soluble solid content, soluble sugar content and sugar/acid. Especially, the moderate deficit irrigation(T2)improves fruit yield 9.6% higher than that of the control and increases economic benefit by 33.92%. Therefore, appropriate deficit irrigation is of benefit to increasing gray jujube yield, quality and economic benefit.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 948-951 [Abstract] ( 316 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1511KB] ( 159 )
952 Effect of delayed irrigation at jointing stage on photosynthetically available radiation capture ratio of wide-precision planting wheat
FAN Yanli, LIU Junmei, ZHAO Jiatao, TAN Dechong, LI Quanqi
To study the water-saving and high-yield planting pattern of winter wheat in the North China Plain, taking "Ji mai 22" as the research material, the conventional planting and wide-precision planting patterns were adopted in the winter wheat breeding period at Agricultural Experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University during 2015—2016 and 2016—2017. For each cropping pattern, the winter wheat was irrigated with 60 mm in the jointing stage and 60 mm for 10 d after the jointing stage, total 4 treatments. The leaf area, photosynthetically available radiation(PAR)intercept amount, dry matter accumulation and yield were observed in the growth period of winter wheat, and the influence of different treatments on winter wheat physiological indexes and yield was analyzed. The results showed that the wide-precision planting pattern significantly increased the leaf area index and PAR capture ratio of winter wheat. The effective utilization of the wheat PAR was optimized by delaying the irrigation, which further promoted the dry matter accumulation. At the same time, delaying the irrigation in the jointing stage significantly increased the wide-precision planting wheat kernel number per spike, thus increasing wheat yield significantly. The research can provide a theoretical basis and technical support. for the North China Plain winter wheat water-saving and high yield.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 952-957 [Abstract] ( 248 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1590KB] ( 223 )
958 Effect of water sensor location and irrigation threshold on physiology and yield of cotton
WANG Fengjiao,, WANG Zhenhua,, LI Wenhao,
In order to explore the influence of suitable moisture sensor position, irrigation threshold and other factors on cotton chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and yield under drip irrigation, three irrigation thresholds and three decision sensors were set up through field tests, and two-factor three-level full-treatment tests were set up. The results showed that the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, qp, NPQ, Y(Ⅱ), ETR) of cotton leaves reached a significant level by the interaction of the position of water sensor, the position of water sensor and the irrigation threshold (P005). The maximum chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton leaves, and seed cotton were all T5 treatments where the moisture sensor was located 40 cm below the surface, and the median irrigation threshold, and the maximum NPQ was CK. According to the test results, it is initially determined that T5 treatment can provide a theoretical basis for the automatic control of irrigation in Xinjiang.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 958-962 [Abstract] ( 269 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1488KB] ( 190 )
963 Development and research status of water turbine for hose reel irrigator
TANG Lingdi, YUAN Shouqi, QIU Zhipeng
In order to solve the problem of the low efficiency of domestic water turbines, the development and research history of hose reel irrigator, and the early research of water turbine were reviewed. The hydraulic performance test, CFD analysis and improvement measures carried out by domestic researchers around JP75 and JP50 water turbines in the nearly five years were also reviewed. In addition, the impulse and radial flow water turbines commonly used in foreign countries were reviewed. The innovative research on an introductied water turbine with jet impulse inlet carried out by domestic researchers was emphatically described. The performance of this kind of water turbine was found to be much better than that of domestic water turbines based on experiment and CFD simulation, and the orthogonal test was used to analyze the influence of various parameters on the performance and the GA-BP optimization algorithm was used to conduct further optimization. Then an optimized water turbine model was obtained. CFD analysis and experiment proved that the internal and hydraulic performance of the optimized water turbine fully surpassed the foreign water turbine. Finally, the shortcomings of water turbine research were summarized, and improvement suggestions were proposed.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 963-968 [Abstract] ( 308 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3345KB] ( 206 )
969 Intelligent solar drive control system of hose reel irrigator
GU Zhe, YUAN Shouqi, TANG Lingdi, TANG Yue
An intelligent control system was developed for the motor driven hose reel irrigator, for the purpose of improving the irrigator′s hydraulic performance, energy use efficiency, as well as realizing the automatic speed control of sprinkler cart, which would be a headache under water turbine driven system. The developed control system employed a high efficiency solar energy powered Brushless DC Motor(BLDCM)to drive the reel. A control system based on the single chip microcomputer MSP430F169 was developed to control the DC motor and detect the system status as well. The control system mainly consists of the solar charge controller, the BLDCM controller, the isolated power mo-dule, the motor voltage and current detect module, the battery capacity detect module, motor speed detect module, the reel speed and rotating layer detect module, and the microcomputer module. The solutions of each function module were described in detail, which combined to realize the automatic speed control of the sprinkler carriage and the operational parameters detection of the hose reel irrigator. The field test shows that this intelligent drive control system operates stable and the sprinkler car-riage can be drawn back in a set speed constantly. This proposed system is an effective fundamental technique for the variable rate irrigation research of hose reel irrigators.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 969-974 [Abstract] ( 483 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2119KB] ( 205 )
975 Exhaust performance of pressure distribution air inbreathe-release valve in large-scale irrigation pipe networks
YANG Xiawei,, CHEN Songshan, YU Xianlei, ZHOU Mingyao*
In order to solve the problem of common air inbreathe-release valves cannot exhaust continuously under the condition of gas and liquid intervalin large-scale irrigation pipe networks, a new type of air inbreathe-release valvewith principle of pressure distribution was designed. The numerical simulation and physical modeling test were used to study on exhaust process and air displacement under the conditions of different valve openings and different exhaust pressure differences. The effects of valve opening degree and exhaust pressure difference on internal flow in the main valve cavity and valve exhaust volume was verified. The deviations of measured values and numerical results were between 0.08% and 6.43%, which verified the correctness of the numerical simulation.The physical test measured the maximum exhaust volume of new DN50 air inbreathe-release valve. The exhaust volumes of new air inbreathe-release valve exceed 27.31% and 21.71% which specified in the rela ted industry specifications when the exhaust pressure difference is 0.035 MPa and 0.070 MPa. Its exhaust performance is good.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 975-980 [Abstract] ( 284 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3424KB] ( 229 )
981 Experimental study on double-nozzle jet sprinkler
XU Shengrong, WANG Xinkun*, XIAO Siqiang, FAN Erdong, ZHANG Chenxi, XUE Zilong, WANG Xuan
A new kind of sprinkler—double-nozzle jet sprinkler was developed. And its structure and working principle were introduced. First of all, the numerical simulation of jet sprinkler, whose nominal diameter of inlet is 10 mm was conducted. The working mechanism of the jet sprinkler was analyzed by studying the internal flow under macro and micro conditions, which mainly includes the flow state of the pressure flow in the control pipe and the transformation process of the low-pressure eddy current in the jet space. The radius of double-nozzle jet sprinkler was studied, and under the condition of 0.05-0.25 MPa, the combined spray irrigation was carried out with nozzles of 6.0,4.0,2.5,1.5 mm. The results show that the radius of double-nozzle jet sprinkler was from 6 m to 16 m, the furthest radius is the jet sprinkler with 4.0 mm×2.5 mm nozzle diameter and the nearest radius is the jet sprinkler with 6.0 mm×6.0 mm nozzle diameter, followed by the jet sprinkler with 2.5 mm×1.5 mm nozzle diameter. The sprinkler radius can meet the requirement of sprinkler irrigation.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 981-984 [Abstract] ( 335 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1898KB] ( 189 )
985 Effect of rainfall forecast accuracy on water management under variable rate irrigation system
LI Xiumei, ZHAO Weixia, LI Jiusheng*, LI Yanfeng
To use the rainfall effectively and improve the water management of variable rate irrigation, the rainfall forecast data were combined with the irrigation schedulings to generate the prescriptions. Based on the accuracies of rain forecast in the 2016 and 2017 seasons, the effect of the rainfall forecasts over a forthcoming three-day period on the irrigation schedulings of winter wheat and summer maize under variable rate irrigation system was studied. Results showed that the accuracy of rain forecast was not obviously different in the future 1 to 3 days. The accuracy was high up to 83.3% in forecasting no rainfall, followed by the high and heavy rain, which was 51.7%. The accuracy was 23.0% in forecasting moderate rainfall. The water savings in winter wheat in the 2016 season and summer maize in the 2017 season by using the rain forecast data were 8 mm and 16 mm, respectively. Consi-dering the accuracy of rain forecasts, the calculated irrigation water could be applied if no rain and light rain were forecasted. When the moderate rain was forecasted, 80% of the irrigation quota could be applied. When the high and heavy rain was forecasted, the irrigation event could be triggered later.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 985-989 [Abstract] ( 346 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1632KB] ( 154 )
990 Current conditions of agricultural water-saving technical standards and development counter strategies for China
SUN Shijun, ZHU Zhenchuang, LI Na, YAO Bin, XU Jianzhong*
Agricultural water-saving technical standards are the important basis for regulating the construction and management of agricultural water-saving projects, and are also the technical guidelines for saving water comprehensively and utilizing water efficiently. Therefore, the standardization of agricultural water-saving technology is of great significance to ensuring the construction quality of water-saving projects, improving the management level, controlling the total amount of agricultural water withdrawal, improving the agricultural water use efficiency, reducing the waste of agricultural water resources, as well as improving the current status of serious water shortage in China. Based on the current status of China′s agricultural water-saving technology standardization system, the existing problems and restrictive factors in the development of current agricultural water-saving technical standards were analyzed and summarized, and some suggestions for promoting the standardization of agricultural water-saving technology in an attempt to providing references for the healthy and sustainable development of agricultural water conservation in China were made.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 990-994 [Abstract] ( 336 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1473KB] ( 259 )
995 Elements release laws of water and mulched gravel interaction
LI Wangcheng,,, WANG Xia*, LIU Minan, WANG Shuangtao, DONG Yaping, ZHAO Yan
To understand the elements release laws of dry-wet alternation and freeze-thaw cycles of the mulched gravel, a major mulched gravel in Zhongwei area of Ningxia was studied.The composition of green slate gravel elements and the accumulation process of gravel solutions of dry-wet alternation and freeze-thaw cycles were analyzed. The gravel was composed of 25 elements such as O, Si, and Fe, which contained a variety of mineral elements required for plant growth and soluble in water.Major elements, trace elements, and beneficial elements required for the growth of plants were released by the gravel during the dry-wet alternation and freeze-thaw cycles. After 50 dry-wet alternations and freeze-thaw cycles, the cumulative release of elements was 786.90 mg and 958.18 mg, respectively. The elemental composition of a major mulched gravel in the Zhongwei area of Ningxia was known, and the elements release laws of mulched gravel during the dry-wet alternation and freeze-thaw cycles were known. It was of great significance to maintaining the health of local soils and improving the quality of crops.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 995-999 [Abstract] ( 327 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1702KB] ( 153 )
1000 Spatiotemporal changes and influencing factors of soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District
CHANG Xiaomin,, WANG Shaoli,*, CHEN Haorui,, FU Xiaojun, XU nannan,, YANG Xiaoping
To study the soil salinity dynamics and the main influencing factors in Hetao Irrigation District, the Jiefangzha Irrigation Scheme(JFIS)was selected as a study area. With the soil salinity in different soil layers, irrigation water, drain discharge, groundwater depth, salt concentration of the groundwater, rainfall, evaporation, etc. as the data foundation, combining with the cultivated land and salt wasteland area changes, the total soil salinity changes of 1-m-deep soil layer both in the cultivated land and salt wasteland during 2006—2016 was quantitatively estimated, the soil salinity dynamics was analyzed, and a prediction model for soil salinity of 1-m-deep soil layer was established. The results show that the annual salt accumulation is 571 200/y, 46.12% of which accumulates in 1-m-deep soil layer and the rest migrates to deep soil or groundwater, the soil salinity of 1-m-deep soil layer decreases by 6.34$ in the cultivated land, while increases by 86.8% in salt wasteland.The results of principle component analysis show that groundwater depth, drain discharge and annual evaporation have the greatest impact on soil salinity, followed by salt concentration of the groundwater, irrigation water and rainfall. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that the soil salinity of 1-m-deep soil layer in the cultivated land is significantly related to groundwater depth, and the correlation coefficient can research 0.732.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1000-1005 [Abstract] ( 353 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2054KB] ( 364 )
1006 Information extraction of ecological canal system based on unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing data
ZHANG Zichao, HAN Yu, CHEN Jian*, WANG Shubo, WANG Guangqi, DU Nannan
There is extensive irrigation in the irrigation of Hetao irrigation area, local cultivators only focu on expanding planting area to increase the production. A precise extraction method for canal information was porposed. Based on the unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV)remote sensing image, the ENVI 5.1 software was used to preprocess the remote sensing images. The three channels of the image were stretched and displayed respectively, and the contrast was enhanced by combination of three channels. The object-oriented method was used to segment the image, and the rule-based classification method was used for the separate and combined analysis based on the different rules. The optimal combination rule of "the spectral mean value is less than 98, the minimum bounding rectangle length width ratio is at its minimum and 0.85 and the extension line is more than 1 m" was proposed. The information of some part of the ecological canal system in the Hetao Irrigation Area of Inner Mongolia was extracted. The recognition accuracy of the ecological channel reached the gross groove level, and the extraction results were evaluated. The correct rate of the combination assisted interpretation was up to 96.4%, which provided accurate drainage information for precision irrigation operation management.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1006-1011 [Abstract] ( 476 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1839KB] ( 216 )
1012 Experimental study on hydraulic characteristics of rectangular water-diversion
LIU Haiqiang, WANG Wen′e*, HU Xiaotao
An experimental study was carried out on the rectangular channel water separation with a side weir under the different channel width ratios. Five kinds of flow were selected in the experiments. Under each flow rate, the different diversion ratios were obtained by adjusting the downstream water depth of the main channel. A total of 75 groups of experiments were carried out. The water depth and other hydraulic factors near the water diversion were measured, and the water surfaces near the water diversion were obtained. According to the weir flow formula, the relationship between the discharge coefficient and the head of the relative weir is fitted at each channel width ratio. The results show that the variation of water surfaces at the water-diversion are approximately the same under different flow rates, and the water surface change is different with the distance from water-diversion. Under the same channel width ratio and the flow rate, the diversion ratio is linearly related to the water head on the relative weir, and increases with the increase of the relative water head on the weir and decreases with the increase of the Froude number of the main channel upstream and downstream. The accuracy of the calculated formula of the flow coefficient is higher and the correlation coefficient is more than 0.9, which meets the accuracy requirement of flow measurement. A preliminary study on hydraulic performance at the water-diversion was carried out, in attempt to provide reference for discharge measurement in irrigation areas.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1012-1016 [Abstract] ( 275 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1882KB] ( 165 )
1017 EDEM-based simulation and experiment on tomato cane straw cutting performance
GUO Qian,, ZHANG Xiliang, XU Yunfeng, LI Pingping, CHEN Cheng, XIE Hongwei
In order to study the effect of blade structure parameters on the cutting efficiency and cutting performance of straw in the shredder, the discrete element method and EDEM software were used to set up the simulation model for cutting the tomato cane straw in the cutting machine. The numerical simulation of cutting energy consumption, cutting force and cutting effect was carried out, and the results were comparied with the test results. The results show that compared with the equal slip angle flat blade and the ordinary blade, the equal slip angle sawtooth blade has less force in the cutting process, the force is more uniform, the fluctuation is smaller, the cutting energy consumption is the lowest, the cutting efficiency is the highest, the cutting time is the shortest, the cutting effect is better and the advantage is obvious. When cutting the tomato cane straw, the cutting force, the energy consumed, the consumed cutting energy, and the cutting time of the 40 equal slip angle sawtooth blade are lower than those of 45° same blade, and its cutting efficiency is higher and cutting effect is better. The results provide a theoretical basis for the selection of tomato straw cutting blades and their structural parameters.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1017-1022 [Abstract] ( 2882 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2302KB] ( 181 )
1023 Effects of phosphorus fertigation on distribution of Olsen-P in soil and yield of maize
WANG Zhen, LI Jiusheng*, LI Yanfeng, HAO Fengzhen
Pot and field experiments of maize(Zea mays L.)under drip irrigation were conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphorus fertigation and lateral depths on the distribution of Olsen-P in soil and growth and yield of maize in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Three lateral depths at 0, 15, and 30 cm beneath the soil surface and two phosphate fertilizer application methods(single basal application and split fertigations)were tested in both years. Another treatment with no phosphate fertilizer applied was considered in the field experiments as control. The phosphorus fertigation could improve the efficiency of phosphate fertilizer while the strong phosphorus adsorption was also observed. The phospho-rus fertigation significantly improved the growth and yield of maize and the phosphate fertilizer application methods imposed significant effects on the yield of maize at a significance level of α=0.1 for both the pot and field experiments. The treatments with lateral depth at 15 cm generally obtained higher yields than the treatments with lateral depths at 0 cm. However, poor phosphorus availability might be found for the crops while the drip laterals were buried at 30 cm and thus limit the growth of crops. The phosphorus fertigation and subsurface drip irrigation are recommended to improve the use efficiency of phosphate fertilizer while a large lateral depth should be used with cautious.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1023-1028 [Abstract] ( 390 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2782KB] ( 197 )
1029 Progress and prospect in research on snowmelt water irrigation affecting soil and pasture in frigid regions of Tibet
TANG Pengcheng,, XU Bing,*, LI Zekun, HE Meng
Snowmelt water is an important water source for frigid region in Tibet. However, owing to the low pressure, low oxygen, strong solar radiation, frequent heat transfer and thin soil layer, impro-per application of low-temperature snowmelt water will cause chilling injury for the pasture. The infiltration and runoff of low-temperature snowmelt water are important for agricultural water cycles, efficient water use and irrigation and it is one of landmark hydrological processes in frigid regions. Therefore, efficient use of snowmelt irrigation becomes a key scientific problem that needs to be solved in Tibet frigid regions. This article reviews the present situation of low-temperature water irrigation and the effect of low-temperature water on soil and plants in Tibet. The multi disciplinary including subjects of crop physiology, irrigation and water conservancy is the priority for reducing the hazard of low-temperature snowmelt in frigid regions of Tibet. This study is helpful to raising the reasonable utilization mode of low-temperature snowmelt water in frigid regions of Tibet and increasing the yield of pasture in frigid regions.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1029-1034 [Abstract] ( 301 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1615KB] ( 192 )
1035 Assessing the influence of soil spatial variability on water leakage and nitrate leaching and yield
WEN Jiangli,, LI Jiusheng*, ZHAO weixia, LI Yanfeng
We studied the influences of spatial variability of soil properties and precipitation patterns on crop yield and nitrate leaching in the growth stage of maize using the CERES-Maize crop model. The results indicated that the precipitation can damp the effect of soil spatial variability on water lea-kage, nitrate leaching and maize yield. The maize yield, water leakage, and nitrate leaching during a wet year were obviously higher than those during a normal year and a dry year. The precipitation can damp the effect of soil spatial variability on nitrate leaching and on maize yield. The maize yield decreased and the spatial variability of maize yield increased with the increasing of soil spatial variability. It is of importance to consider soil spatial variability in developing water and nitrogen management when the variation coefficient of silt and clay content exceeds 0.2.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1035-1040 [Abstract] ( 257 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1596KB] ( 161 )
1041 Numerical simulation of flow field characteristics of inclined tube-gravity sedimentation tank for drip irrigation in Yellow River
WANG Keyuan, LI Yunkai, YANG Peiling*, REN Shumei
The sedimentation tank is the key facility to ensure the safe operation of drip irrigation system in Hetao irrigation areas. It is of great significance to study the flow field characteristics for optimizing the structure of the sedimentation tank and improving the sediment deposition efficiency. A new type of gravity settling basin for Yellow River irrigation areas was studied. It reduced the sediment settling distance by setting the inclined pipe in the sedimentation tank, and further improving the sedimentation efficiency. Based on the numerical simulation technology, the Realizable k-ε model in Star-ccm+software was used to simulate the flow process of the inclined tube-gravity sedimentation tank which was used in Hetao irrigation areas. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with the measured data, which showed that the numerical simulation results could well reflect the flow field characteristics of the inclined tube-gravity sedimentation tank. The simulation results showed that the flow pattern in the inclined tube area of the settling basin was relatively stable, which was favorable for stable settling of the sediment. The vortex area at the front of the sedimentation tank and the bottom of the front area and the top of the back area of inclined tube area was not conducive to sediment settlement. The water absorption effect of the overflow weir in the back of the sedimentation tank affected the flow stability in the inclined tube area and reduced the sedimentation efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the structural parameters of the sedimentation tank. The research indicates that this type of settling basin needs to optimize the hole arrangement pattern of the adjusting flow board, the assembly height of the inclined tube and the position of the overflow weir.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1041-1046 [Abstract] ( 384 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2932KB] ( 198 )
1047 Effects of water-fertilizer coupling on greenhouse tomato growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters
WANG Hubing, CAO Hongxia*, HAO Shuxue, PAN Xiaoyan
In order to explore the effects of different amounts of irrigation and fertilizer on plant growth and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of tomatoes, through solar greenhouse experiments, water volumes were set as 1.00E(W1), 0.75E(W2)and 0.50E(W3). Fertilizer treatments of N-P2O5-K2O(F)included 320-160-320 kg/hm2(F1), 240-120-240 kg/hm2(F2)and 160-80-160 kg/hm2(F3);besides, the local irrigation and fertilization was set as control(CK). The results showed that irrigation and fertilization had a significant effect on plant height except for 58 d. And the plant height increased with irrigation and fertilization increasing. The interaction of water and fertilizer only had a significant effect on plant height at 28 d and 38 d. The fertilization had a significant effect on stem diameter after 48 d, and the stem diameter increased with the amount of fertilizer rising at W1 level. Low fertilizer and low water are beneficial to the enhancement of the root-shoot ratio of tomatoes. Irrigation had a significant effect on Fv/Fm and ΦPSⅡ, and the fertilization also had a significant effect on Fv/Fm except for 56 d and ΦPSⅡ at 79 d and 86 d. The interaction of water and fertilizer only had a significant effect on Fv/Fm at 93 d. Fv/Fm increased with irrigation amount increasing, and it increased with the increasing of fertilizer at 79 d. While the ΦPSⅡ increased by increasing irrigation and fertilization after 79 d except for W3F2 treatment. Tomato plant height, stem diameter, Fv/Fm and ΦPSⅡ through the comprehensive analysis are all better when irrigation amount is 1.00E and fertilizer amount is 320-160-320 kg/hm2, which is beneficial to crop growth and yield.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1047-1052 [Abstract] ( 259 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1526KB] ( 148 )
1053 Analysis of irrigation water demand and supply in the Lhasa River valley, Tibet
LI Dan, LUO Hongying, LUO Yufeng, *, CUI Yuanlai, LI Yuqing, MENG Qiang
Investigations into the balanced relationship between irrigation water demand and supply would provide the theoretical basis for irrigation water management in the period of crop growing and water resources comprehensive development. Taking the lower Lhasa River valley as the study area, the total irrigation water requirement in different typical years was calculated according to the meteorological data from Lhasa and Mozhugongca meteorological station in 1989—2010 and the stable crop(highland barley, winter wheat and oilseed rape)planting area extracted from Landsat remote sensing images in the same period. The balance between the irrigation water demand and supply was analyzed based on the runoff sequence from 1989 to 2010 in Lhasa hydrological station and the irrigation water demand. The major results could be summarized as follows: the planting structure in the Lhasa River valley was dominated by food crops. The planting area increased by about 8% from 1990 to 2010 and there was no significant change in crop planting structure. The increase in crop acreage resulted in a significant increase in irrigation water demand. The irrigation water demand reached 1.6 billion cubic meters in 2010, up 35% over 1990. Highland barley is the crop with the greatest need for irrigation. Seasonal changes in river runoff and irrigation water demand were different. The relationship between irrigation demand and supply from April to June is relatively tight with the proportion of irrigation close to 10% to 20%. The river is in a dry season from December to April of each year. Despite the fact that the irrigation water requirement during the same period was relatively small, the pressure of irrigation water requirement on water resources cannot be ignored. The relationship between water supply and demand in the Lhasa River valley is relatively intense.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1053-1058 [Abstract] ( 301 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4892KB] ( 273 )
1059 Effect of root distribution of different crops in salt-containing soil on soil water and salt
HOU Chenli,, TIAN Delong, XU Bing, LI Xianyue
After farmlands adjusted the planting structure, the root distribution of different crops affec-ted water salt and vertical distribution. We took alfalfa and maize planted in the same saline soil as the research objects in this paper and discussed the relationship between soil water, salt and root distribution in an attempt to provide a reference for rationalized cultivation of alfalfa in saline soil. The results showed that the average soil moisture content of alfalfa at 0-100 cm is significantly lower than that of maize in the whole growth period, and the average soil moisture content of it at the depth of 60-100 cm is 1.98% lower than that of maize, which effectively utilized deep water. The average salt accumulation in the soil decreases gradually with time, and their salt distribution is different. The salt content of alfalfa in the shallow soil is evenly distributed around August, but that of maize appears mainly in late August. The salt removal rate of alfalfa is significantly higher than that of maize. The proportion of alfalfa deep root system in the late growth stage increases, and the soil layer is densely distributed in the roots, its desalination is obvious. The root length density of alfalfa fine roots is positively correlated with HCO-3, and HCO-3 increases with the increase of root length density. HCO-3 in soil can reduce the increase of K++Na+ and Cl-, which causes the desalination of the crop soil.
2018 Vol. 36 (10): 1059-1064 [Abstract] ( 268 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1714KB] ( 199 )
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