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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2018 Vol.36 Issue.7
Published 2018-07-25

article
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2018 Vol. 36 (7): 1- [Abstract] ( 207 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 39888KB] ( 328 )
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2018 Vol. 36 (7): 2- [Abstract] ( 216 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1180KB] ( 448 )
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2018 Vol. 36 (7): 553-559 [Abstract] ( 421 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3103KB] ( 339 )
560 Influence of blade thickness profile on energy distribution at impeller outlet of mixed-flow nuclear reactor coolant pump
YANG Minguan, LI Yuting*, GAO Bo, NI Dan, ZHANG Yongchao
In order to clarify mechanism of blades acting on a liquid, the hydraulic performance, energy distribution properties at impeller outlet and internal flow in mixed-flow impellers with different blade thickness profiles were investigated by using numerical methods. The kinetic and static pressure energies as well as the total energy at impeller outlet were obtained. In addition, the total energy was decomposed into radial and axial components, and their proportions to total energy were calculated. The fluid patterns around blades with different thickness profiles were analyzed.The results show that the streamline-wise variable blade thickness profile can result a better hydraulic performance than the span-wise variable thickness profile, especially in the case where the maximum thickness occurs near the hub. The total energy is almost the static pressure energy at impeller outlet, but it has a similar distribution feature to kinetic energy. The radial and axial energy proportion shave a relationship with both blade thickness profile and pump working condition. For the streamline-wise variable blade thickness profile, the blade can adapt the flow in both the axial and radial directions. For the span-wise variable blade thickness profile, however, the blade can adapt flow in one direction only.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 560-566 [Abstract] ( 570 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2210KB] ( 471 )
567 Structural characteristics of ultrahigh-pressure multistage centrifugal pump typed SDZ310
CHEN Hongjun*, ZHANG Tiehan, WANG Changrong
Functioning as core equipment in high-pressure water systems, the ultrahigh-pressure multistage centrifugal pump(UPMCP)has been widely applied in industries such as metallurgy, chemical, petroleum and electric power sectors. However, there is a difficulty in axial thrust balance on the rotor in UPMCPsand the seals between stages are damaged easily after a long period of operation experienced currently. In this paper, Structural characters of UPMCPs for phosphorus removal were studied and analyzed, and then a axial thrust self-balanced type SDZ310 UPMCP with double case was developed. The impellers were symmetrically arranged on the pump rotor to make the axial thrust on the rotor self-balanced to extend pump life-span and strength the operation alliability of pump. In consequence, the difficult problem of balancing frequently varied axial thrust, which is caused from constantly variable operation condition in phosphorus removal services, has been solved.A centralized oil supply and return system with check valves has been integrated into the pump to meet the requirements of lubrication and cooling in long-time operation. The precisely grinded screw sealsof chrome platedwere adopted in the pump to guarantee no leakage between stages during operation. Therefore, the pump can maintain a sufficient high volumetric efficiency and subsequently a better total efficiency.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 567-572 [Abstract] ( 1327 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1937KB] ( 771 )
573 Optimization design for axial pump based on genetic algorithm
TAO Ran,, XIAO Ruofu*, YANG Wei
Hydrodynamics design and optimization were conducted for an axial pump impeller.The optimization target was to improving the hydraulic performance of the axial pump by keeping the design requirements. During the optimization process, the blade angles were set as the optimization parameters. The genetic algorithm with binary coding was used as the optimization method. The hydraulic efficiency was defined as the optimization target function. The computational fluid dynamics(CFD)was used to solve the fitness function value. Verification results show that the hydrodynamic performances satisfied the requirements after optimization. The hydraulic efficiency is enhanced from 81.68% to 86.19%, the pump head also increases from 3.73 m to 4.56 m. Flow analysis shows that the head increased due to the higher-pressure difference between the suction and pressure sides of the impeller blades. Based on the hydraulic loss analysis, the efficiency increased because of the lower hydraulic losses in the pump. At the same time, the best efficiency point moved to the design condition with a wider high-efficiency region. This mathematical optimization for axial pump is fast and effective to improve the hydraulic performances based on the initial design.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 573-579 [Abstract] ( 443 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1902KB] ( 489 )
580 Optimization analysis of vaned-diffuser of boiler water circulating pump based on orthogonal experiment
DUAN Xiaohui*, KONG Fanyu, ZHAO Ruijie, LIU Yingying, TAN Qianyan
Orthogonal experiments were used to optimize the vaned diffuser of a boiler water circulating pump in the paper. The inletvane angle, diffusion angle, and throat area were selected as three factors in orthogonal experimental design. Each factor was subject to three levels, resulting in nine experimental designs. Fluid dynamics in every experimental design was calculated and analyzed by using CFD method. The performances of nine experimental designs were compared each other and a range analysis was conducted on the performances of nine experimental designs. The results showed that selected design factors played an important but different role in determining the characteristics of the pump.The three factors are in a rank such as inlet blade angel>throat area>diffusion angle to influence the pump characteristics from the most important to the least important.Specially, the inlet blade angle has a greater influence on the head than on the efficiency, however, the rest have an equal influence on both the head and the efficiency. According to the results of orthogonal experimental designs, the optimal design should be 16.2° inlet blade angle, 8° diffusion angle and 37×50 mm2 throat area.Since the predicted performance of the pump with original diffuser was in agreement with the measurement, the simulation data of nine experimental designs are accurate.It can be concluded that orthogonal experimental design method is applicable in the design of vaned-diffuser of boiler water circulating pump. By adjusting the primary and secondary important factors, the pump performance can be improved to provide areliable support toboiler water circulation in thermal power plants.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 580-586 [Abstract] ( 417 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1893KB] ( 441 )
587 Development and research on 3-D maintenance simulation training system for large and medium pumping station unit
ZHENG Yuan, LI Li*, MENG Zhiwei
In order to realize the 3-D visualization of pump station unit maintenance and strengthen the technical guidance and training of the maintenance personnel,combined with the maintenance process of Gao Gang Pumping Station Taizhou of Jiangsu, with the help of VS2010,osg,QT, Premiere and other software,a 3-D simulation training system of large and medium pumping station unit was established using 3ds Max software on the pumping station plant and unit block modeling.The 3-D animation technology,virtual assembly technology,3-D interactive technology and virtual reality technology were used to construct the pump station unit.The system created a unit maintenance model library,achieved the unit maintenance of multimedia presentation,simulation training functions and skills identification and other functions, and created a new simulation exercise platform of the large and medium pumping station unit maintenance operations.The system provides a powerful 3-D demonstration animation,showing a flexible and accurate interactive roaming environment,and the skills of the students can be systematically identified.The system can strengthen the training results and effectively solve the pump station maintenance personnel training problems,providing reference for the standardized maintenance of pumping station.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 587-592 [Abstract] ( 560 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2030KB] ( 428 )
593 Influence of parameter uncertainty on reliability of groundwater numerical simulation results
LIU Pai
A rectangular aquifer domain served as a study region for groundwater numerical simulations. The region was divided into four zones according to differences in hydraulic conductivity. A numerical simulation model was established by using the HydroGeoSphere simulation system. The sensitivity coefficient was analyzed in those aquifer zones when the permeability coefficient of the aquifer was used as an objective parameter. A stochastic simulation was conducted to evaluate the reliability of the results produced by deterministic model and stochastic model. Results showed that the permeability coefficient in top element 1 was the most sensitive. This fact may be related to the zone location directly. Based on the stochastic model, the pressure head was distributed in a certain probability. According to the deterministic model, the frequency of 290.52 cm pressure head variation was 7% only. When the reliability of deterministic model was considered as 100%, the reliability of stochastic model was reduced remarkably. This suggested that there was a significant difference in the results predicted by the stochastic model from those by the deterministic model. Since the probabilistic distribution characteristics in the results of stochastic model can represent the actual situation of groundwater more realistically, the stochastic model is favor of risk evasion in groundwater resources decision-making management.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 593-598 [Abstract] ( 548 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2360KB] ( 531 )
599 Study on lubrication characteristics of water lubricated bearings under different inlet pressures
ZHENG Jianbo, YE Xiaoyan*, HU Jingning, SHE Xunan
The variation of inlet pressure can affect the safety, reliability and stability of the water lubricated bearing rotor system in a seawater desalination high-pressure pump. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out on the shaft orbits of dry and wet rotors under different inlet pressures to clarify the axial force and circumferential pressure distributions. Additionally, the shaft orbits and circumferential pressure fluctuation were measured when the water lubrication bearings were in operation at different inlet pressures based on a water lubricated bearing test stand for seawater desalination high-pressure pumps designed and developed in the first-phase of a project. The simulated and measured results showed that the influence of inlet pressure on the liquid film formation was more substantial in the dry rotor. For the wet rotor system, however, due to the damping factor in the system, the influence of the inlet pressure on the axis orbit was smaller, but the overall variation trend was similar to that of the dry rotor. For the system as a whole, the operation of the rotor system was stable as the inlet pressure was at 0.2MPa. This study has provided some research basis for improving the operational stability of the rotor system in a seawater desalination high-pressure pump further.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 599-606 [Abstract] ( 495 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3996KB] ( 372 )
607 Analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow in oxidation ditch with fine bubbles based on PBM model
YANG Yahong, LIU Lingang*, ZHAO Yang, ZHU Tianxu
It is difficult to model fine bubble aeration in multiphase flow simulations for oxidation ditch with fine bubbles. In this work,the population balance model(PBM)was used by employing FLUENT and the model feasibility in fine bubble aeration was validated. Then, the gas-liquid flow in an oxidation ditch with fine bubbles was studied in Fluent. The results show that the velocity based on PBM model agrees better with the experimental data than the velocity based on the traditional model, i.e. the average error of the former is less than the latter. Thus, the new method coupled with PBM model can reduce the error caused by simplified aeration models.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 607-612 [Abstract] ( 640 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1766KB] ( 523 )
613 Integrated condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technology for wind turbine drive-train
REN Yan,*, ZHANG Kai
To monitor and diagnose structure and operation process of wind turbine drive-train, a single physical simulation or single empirical method is unable to achieve condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of the entire operation. In the paper, these two methods were combined together. A wind turbine drive-train online condition monitoring system was used to conduct data acquiring and pre-process. FFT, FNN and expert system were adopted to carry out diagnosis of various faults, and decision fusion technology was used to optimize the diagnosed results. As a result, an integrated online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system was built for the wind turbine drive-train. The system was combined with CMS and SCADA to carry out condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for wind turbines. Based on this system, the fault diagnosis of main shaft bearings of a wind turbine in a wind farm was performed, and the vibration amplitude, failure time, fault location and fault degree were analyzed. According to the diagnosed results, the expert advices were provided. The system is very versatile, adaptable, fault-tolerant and easy to implement. Additionally, the system has improved the capabilities of analysis, reasoning, optimization and remote diagnostic, and a higher level of intelligence has been achieved.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 613-616 [Abstract] ( 1129 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1386KB] ( 526 )
617 Characteristics of soil moisture growth and decline in sandy land under root irrigation
DU Hulin,*, LIU Junjiang, LIU Rongguo, MA Zhenyong,, LIU Ligang, WANG Yongjun, ZHU Rui, ZHANG Bo, NIU Jinshuai
Irrigation experiments were conducted on artificially planted annual Halotylon ammodendron in the Sapotou Environment Protection Ecological Demonstration Base in Zhongwei of Ningxia by using a straight-inserting root irrigation technique. Soil water variations in 20-100 cm soil layer were observed continuously in 24 h by TDR probe. The characteristics of soil water increase and depletion are as follows: soil water increase can be divided into two stages, the initial 6 h after irrigation is a rapid increase stage with an increase rate of 55.36%/h. Following that there is a slow increase stage with an increase rate of 0.57%/h, i.e. just 1.03% of the rate in the first stage. Soil water depletion can be divided into two stages: the initial 6-8 h after stopping irrigation is a rapid soil water depletion stage with a depletion rate of 7.58%/h. Then there is a slow depletion stage with a depletion rate of 0.58%/h, and the soil water depletion period is 5 d. The minimum threshold of soil water deflation is 1.45%, which is of great significance to artificial plant growth in Shapotou, because the soil moisture content is 1.45% -4.0% in that area. The soil water depletion processes can be best fitted by a power function equation. In 20 cm depth shallow surface soil layer, soil moisture of straight-tube root irrigation is 170% higher than that of surface drip irrigation. The effective water holding time of straight-tube root irrigation is 12 times the surface drip irrigation. Straight-tube root irrigation has better soil moisture conservation than surface drip irrigation.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 617-624 [Abstract] ( 547 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1517KB] ( 323 )
625 Experimental study on mechanical properties of red Pisha-sandstone under wet-dry cycles in Ordos
WU Shangyun, LI Xiaoli*, CHANG Ping, LI Mingyu,CHEN Suhang
In order to analyse the mechanical properties of red Pisha-sandstone, the Pisha-sandstones with different particle sizes(<2 mm, 0.50-1.00 mm, 0.25-0.50 mm, and < 0.25 mm)in Jungar Banner, Ordos City, were tested with various dry-wet cycles(1, 3, 5, 7, 9), and the shrinkage deformation and strength characteristics of sandstone were obtained. Results show that the biggest shrinkage is reached after 3 dry-wet cycles for the Pisha-sandstone with < 2 mm particle size(original sandstone), for the sandstone with 0.50-1.00 mm particle size, however, its samples keep a slow contracting deposition. Interestingly, for the sandstone with < 0.25 mm particle size, the soil compactness achieves the maximum value at the 3rd cycle. On this basis, a direct shear device is applied to determine the shear strength of Pisha-sandstones. Under the same vertical load, the shear strength of the stone sample with <2 mm particle size increases with increasing number of cycles, but the maximum increment in the strength is exhibited in 1-3 cycles, and then the strength get large slightly. The shear strength of the sample with 0.50-1.00 mm particle size rises slowly and steadily with increasing number of cycles. The shear strength of the samples 0.25-0.50 mm and <0.25 mm particle sizes decreases a little initially then increases a bit and finally becomes saturated.. For the samples with <2 mm and 0.50-1.00 mm particle sizes, their internal friction angle increases with increasing number of cycles; for the samples with 0.25-0.50 mm and <0.25 mm particle sizes, however, the angle hardly changes with the number. For the samples with <2 mm and 0.50-1.00 mm particle sizes, the cohesion force increases firstly and keep flat basically; the samples with 0.25-~0.50 mm and <0.25 mm particle sizes, the force decreases initially then shows a small increase.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 625-631 [Abstract] ( 350 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2009KB] ( 382 )
632 Experimental study on irrigation uniformity of lateral pipe with jet-pulse tees
XIAO Siqiang, WANG Xinkun*, XU Shengrong, FANG Erdong
In order to improve the irrigation uniformity of low pressure drip irrigation system, a jet-pulse tee generator was invented based on the attachment and switching principle. Effects of pulse frequency and amplitude on irrigation uniformity coefficient and flow rate deviation ratio were studied experimentally under various pressures conditions, and the influence of lateral pipe length and inlet pressure on irrigation uniformity coefficient was also analysed in pulse conditions. Results show that the irrigation uniformity coefficient of jet-pulse tee is 0.65 % higher than the ordinary tee in average and its mean deviation ratio is obviously lower than that of the ordinary tee, exhibiting a decrease by 3.62% in average. In addition, under low pressure conditions, the pulse frequency generated by the tee is higher than 200 times/min and the pulse amplitude is larger than 2.5 m. At an identical pressure, the irrigation uniformity coefficient decreases with increasing length of lateral pipe, but the flow rate deviation ratio increases considerably with the length. In the same length, the flow rate through the emitter increases with increasing inlet pressure, and so does the inlet flow rate. In a word, the pulse leteral pipe is only concerned. However, the irrigation uniformity of a pulse branch and a pulse irrigation area will be tackled in the future. Nevertheless, this will extend drip irrigation equipment, and is an effective way to create a high-performance drip irrigation system.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 632-638 [Abstract] ( 478 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1696KB] ( 409 )
639 Effects of recycled agricultural wastes on tomato quality, yield and soil NPK nutrient content in protected house
LIU Zhongliang, ZHANG Yanyan, GU Duanyin, JIAO Juan, GAO Junjie*, LIU Shiqi,
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of recycled agricultural wastes on tomato quality and yield as well as soil NPK content, a tomato variety "Jinpeng 8" was used as test plant, and eight treatments of mushroom dregs, rice husk and wheat straw were designed, i.e. CK 0∶0∶0, T1 2∶0∶1, T2 0∶1∶2, T3 1∶2∶0, T4 1∶1∶1, T5 1∶0∶2, T6 2∶1∶0 and T7 0∶2∶1. The influence of agricultural wastes on the fruit yield, quality and soil NPK content were clarified experimentally. Results showed that the agricultural wastes increased soluble sugar, VC and lycopene content of tomato fruit, decreased organic acid content and intensified the sugar-to-acid ratio. The soluble sugar content in the fruit reached the maximum 3.30% in treatment T4, while the organic acid content was the lowest 0.30%. The sugar-to-acid ratio were 7.21, 8.49 and 8.60, respectively, in treatments T1, T2 and T5, and were better than those in treatment CK. The VC content was(9.62-17.54)×10-2 mg/g, increased by 33.16%-82.33% in comparison with treatment CK, and the differences in the content were statistically significant among the treatments. The lycopene content was as high as 82.88 mg/kg and 80.80 mg/kg in treatments T4 and T2, respectively, increased by 47.11% and 43.41% compared with those in treatment CK. In addition, the yield reached the highest of 100 927.02 kg/hm2 in treatment T2, increased by 31.41% compared with treatment CK and was subject to statistical significance. In treatment T3, the alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen content was at the highest of 131.26 mg/kg. The available phosphorus content in each treatment was significantly higher than treatment CK. The available kalium content was in a range of 127.02-155.03 mg/kg. The organic matter content in treatment T6 was at the highest of 1.60 g/kg. Comprehensively considering yield, quality and the other indices, treatment T2 was the better one.
2018 Vol. 36 (7): 639-644 [Abstract] ( 441 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1384KB] ( 388 )
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