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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2018 Vol.36 Issue.6
Published 2018-06-25

article
article
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2018 Vol. 36 (6): 1- [Abstract] ( 181 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 8335KB] ( 206 )
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2018 Vol. 36 (6): 2- [Abstract] ( 199 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1156KB] ( 231 )
461 Pressure fluctuation characteristics of Francis pump turbine in the hump zone
LI Qifei,*, WANG Yuankai, LIU Chao, ZHANG Jianxun, ZHANG Zhengjie, WANG Renben
In order to study the pressure characteristics of Francis pump turbine flow in the peak zone inside, with a pumped storage station pump turbine as the research object, the whole flow channel unsteady numerical calculation was conducted for the model unit. Combined with the test data, the pressure fluctuation characteristics and flow characteristics at different positions in the hump flow under the pump operating conditions were aralyzed, and the impact of the flow on the unit pressure fluctuation characteristics was discussed. The results show that under the hump zone operating condition, the pressure pulsation at the volute outlet is mainly affected by the internal flow characteristics, at the same time is also affected by the upstream dual cascade role. The pressure time domain change periodicity at the minimal value point in the hump zone is disturbed. The pressure pulsation frequency between the runner and the guide vane is the low frequency, and the second frequency is 9 times and 18 times conversion frequencies. The pressure fluctuation amplitude increases with the flow rate decreasing. Cone tube pressure pulsation is the low-frequency pressure pulsation. The upstream pressure fluctuation of cone tube is greatly influenced by the dynamic interaction of the downstream runner-tail water pipe at the minimal value point in the hump zone, and there appears the pressure fluctuation of the high-frequency component
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 461-466 [Abstract] ( 384 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1974KB] ( 385 )
467 Simulation on performance of a centrifugal pump during rapid startup period
WU Shaoke*, ZHANG Yuewen, ZHANG Peng
To further research instantaneous characteristics in the centrifugal pump during the startup period, first, the results simulated by the software Flowmaster and the experimental results were compared, and then the situation that pump started up by different ways was simulated and analyzed. It showed that star-delta starting was in favour of the pump compared to the direct-starting. Based on this, Flowmaster was used to simulate the instantaneous starting speed, flow rate, power and outlet pressure of the centrifugal pump with the different valve openings. At last, the non-dimensional analysis was carried out. The results show that the star-delta starting belongs to the slow-start and is better than the direct-starting. In the start-up process of the centrifugal pump, flow rate characteristics are mainly determined by the motor starting characteristics and rise slowly at the beginning. The time that the flow rate reaches the stablility from zero laggs far behind the time that the rotating speed does. The dimensionless coefficient varie all the time and it can not be inconsistent with the quasi-steady state assumption.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 467-471 [Abstract] ( 916 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1599KB] ( 529 )
472 Vibration test and analysis on the centrifugal pump
XUE Zenghong*, CAO Xiao, WANG Tianzhou
The vibration test and analysis is difficult to be conducted, and the valid ways are still lack, which causes many centrifugal pumps to exceed the standard vibration in a big potential risk. In order to solve the problem, the HG8908C, a vibration data collection system of Beijing Jinghang, was used to monitor the vibration signal on the centrifugal pump manufactured by Chongqing Pumps Company. The vibration signal characteristic of amplitude domain, time domain and frequency domain were analyzed in detail by fast fourier transforms(FFT). Besides, combined with the typical database of vibration faults, the faults, such as the friction fault between pump rotor and casing, and the poor supporting stiffness on pipe by balancing axis force(PBAF), were diagnosed. Based on the above mentioned diagnostic outcome and the static bending deflection of pump rator by FEM, the install center of pump rotor was adjusted, the thickness of PBAF was increased, the support as welded among PBAF and pump body and other solutions were carried out. The test results show that the solution ways have a positive effect on it, and the pump can work for hours in a good state. The test results show that the fault diagnosis methods and the solution ways can solve better the matters of vibration faults on the centrifugal pumps, which is of a certain value to the similar problems.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 472-477 [Abstract] ( 715 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2537KB] ( 370 )
478 Numerical analysis of the two-phase flow(liquid/gas)in axial pump based on Eulerian-Eulerian flow model
TANG Yuanfeng, YUAN Jianping*, SI Qiaorui, ZHANG Keyu, LU Rong
In order to investigate the gas-liquid two-phase flow characteristics in axial pumps, an axial pump with the specific speed of 1 500 was selected as study object. The two-phase flow in the pump was calculated based on the Eulerian-Eulerian inhomogeneous two-phase model at different flow rates and inlet gas volume fractions(IGVF). The performance of the axial pump was obtained under gas-liquid mixing flow conditions. Meanwhile, the two-phase flow pattern was indicated by analysis of the pressure and gas distribution and velocity distribution of two-phase in the impeller. The results show that the curves of the head and the efficiency display a slight decline with the increase of inlet gas volume fraction. Moreover, under the same air void, the pressure of the pressure face is greater than the suction surface pressure, and the pressure increases from the hub to the rim. And the gas is mainly concentrated on the suction surface of the impeller. With the increase of flow rate, the highest pressure is nearing the flange, the gas on the pressure surface of blade gradually increases, but that on the suction surface is opposite. The pressure surface gas is mainly accumulated on the inlet side and has a tendency to move towards the rim. At the same flow rate, the gas is still mainly concentrated on the suction surface of the impeller. With the increase of air void, the maximum pressure region of the pressure face has a tendency to move from the inlet side to the middle rim, then moves to the impeller outlet along the suction surface. In addition, with the increase of flow rate, the velocity of gas-liquid phase increases, and the flow separation phenomenon appears in the region close to the hub.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 478-484 [Abstract] ( 465 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3108KB] ( 355 )
485 Mechanical properties of nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller based on bidirectional fluid structure interaction
ZHONG Weiyuan*, ZHU Rongsheng, WANG Xiuli, LU Yonggang, LIU Yong, KANG Junjun
Based on the bidirectional fluid structure interaction method, the flow field and the structural response of the impeller were solved. The mechanical properties of the impeller of the nuclear reactor coolant pump were studied.The stress and deformation distribution of the impeller, the leading and trailing of the blade and the root of the blade under different flows were analyzed. The results show that the fluid structure interaction effect has some influence on the characteristics of the nuclear reactor coolant pump and the result is closer to the test value after coupling; with the increase of flow rate, the stress distribution uniformity of the front shroud decreases, and the maximum equivalent stress occurs at the trailing edge of impeller blade and the frond shroud at the junction, where the fatigue load is liable to occur under the alternating load; the maximum deformation of the impeller occurs at the middle of the exit edge of the blade, which increases with flow rate; the stress concentration phenomenon appears easily at the leading and trailing of the blade root, which shows that the inlet and outlet of the blade are very sensitive to the pressure, load and static and dynamic interference of the fluid flow; as a result enough attention should be paid to these areas in impeller′s hydraulic and structural design. The results provide a useful reference for the performance analysis of the nuclear reactor coolant pump as well as the structural design, maintenance and overhaul of the impeller.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 485-493 [Abstract] ( 409 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3108KB] ( 320 )
494 Finding academic concerns of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project based on a topic modeling approach
ZHOU Lanting, YANG Jing*, LI Jianhua
From 2003 to 2016, a total of 13 valid topics were identified by LDA(Latent Dirichlet Allocation)topic model through the collection of 1405 Chinese documents related to the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project.The topics include "engineering construction","pump station operation optimization", "water pump performance study", "engineering cost research","water environment model","river water pollution","information automation","lake eutrophication", "water pollutant","pump structure calculation","pump hydraulic calculation","ecology" and "ecological environment management".Two novel bibliometric indicators, including topic proportion and topic trend, were constructed to describe the academic concerns of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project, ifnding that "engineering construction" is the most popular topic, followed by "pump station operation optimization" and "water pump performance study". However the "water environment model" and "lake eutrophication" are becoming a hot topic. The results reflect the attention of the academic circles and provide the basis for the post-evaluation of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 494-500 [Abstract] ( 381 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1424KB] ( 290 )
501 Conduit Hydraulic optimization of the slanted pump system for Babao Pumping Station of Hangzhou
PAN Zhijun, XU Lei*, SHEN Xiaoyan, HONG Fei, ZHANG Hao
In order to ensure the slanted pump system of Babao Pumping Station to operate safely, reliably and efficiently, the optimum hydraulic design on the station′s slanted inlet conduit and slanted outlet conduit has been completed by the method of three-dimensional turbulent flow numerical simulation. Based on the numerical simulation results, the influences of conduit height and pump shaft angle on the hydraulic performance of slanted inlet conduit were respectively studied and the influences of diffusion angle and pump shaft angle on the hydraulic performance of slanted outlet conduit were respectively studied. The results indicate that the larger the height of the slanted inlet conduit, the better the conduit hydraulic performance; the smaller the angle of pump shaft, the better the conduit hydraulic performance; the smaller the turn angle of inlet conduit is, the smaller the influence of centrifugal force is, and the more advantageously the flow adjusts; the smaller the diffusion angle of slanted outlet conduit, the better the conduit hydraulic performance, the larger the angle of pump shaft, the better the conduit hydraulic performance; affected by both the spiral flow and the S-shaped curving conduit which turns sharply, the asymmetric vortex exists inevitably in slanted outlet conduit; comprehensive consideration on the various factors of Babao Pumping Station such as conduit hydraulic performance, civil engineering quantity, hoisting height of sluice gate and installation and maintenance difficulty of pumping unit, the angle of pump shaft is determined as 20° for the slanted pump system of the station.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 501-508 [Abstract] ( 718 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3023KB] ( 318 )
509
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 509-516 [Abstract] ( 376 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2091KB] ( 206 )
517 Effects of groove depths on cavitation flow field in a U-shaped throttle valve
HE Jie, LIU Xiumei*, LI Beibei,, XU Huawen
A CFD numerical calculation model was established in order to study the flow field inside U-shaped throttle valve. The velocity, pressure drop and cavitation region in throttle with different groove depths were also obtained. The numerical results showed that the maximum pressure is located at the upstream of the flow channel and the minimum pressure is located at the downstream of the flow channel. The pressure drops a lot and a high-speed jet forms when the fluid passes through the throttle outlet. Under the same working conditions,with the increase of groove depth, the flow in the notch increases. This situation forces the oil to flow rapidly through the orifice, which results in a change in the direction of the jet.The angle of high-speed jet shows a decreasing trend, but the maximum flow rate of oil gradually increases. At the outlet of the throttle groove, cavitation occurs near the wall of the valve cavity, and with the depth of the groove increasesing, the internal pressure of the throttle notch is recovered slowly, the cavitation area increases gradually, and the strong cavitation area in the radial section gradually expands toward the center of the throttling tank.Therefore, a reasonable control of the U-groove depth or increasing the internal resistance of the throttle can effectively inhibit the occurrence of cavitation.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 517-523 [Abstract] ( 335 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3278KB] ( 312 )
524 Soil fertility and tea quality of tea plantation under sprinkler irrigation
MIAO Zimei, LI Jingchun*, CHEN Dong, WANG Weihan
Based on the regulation of water under sprinkler irrigation, field experiments were conducted to investigate the tea soil fertility index(including soil nitrogen, soil temperature)and tea quality indexes(including amino acid, tea polyphenol)dynamic changes. The results show that total nitrogen(TN)in surface soil layer under sprinkler irrigation was the highest.With the increase of soil depth, TN content decreased, and TN content of sprinkler irrigation treatment was slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment. Changes of available nitrogen content presented the same trend as TN content. Compared with the conventional irrigation treatment, the average content of soil TN increased by 3.3%-22.2%, and the average content of available nitrogen increased by 7.1%-24.7% under the sprinkler irrigation treatment. Moreover, soil temperatures in surface soil layer and 20 cm soil layer of the sprinkler irrigation treatment were both higher than those of the conventional treatment. For surface soil layer, the soil temperature was lowest at 5:00, 1 hour in advance compared to the conventional treatment, and highest at 14:00, synchronized with the conventional treatment. For 20 cm soil layer, the soil temperature was lowest at 8:00, 2 hours in advance compared to the conventional treatment, and it was highest at 17: 00, nearly 2 hours in advance compared to the conventional treatment. In addition, the content of amino acids decreased first and then increased, while the tea polyphenol content increased first and then decreased. Both the contents of amino acid and tea polyphenol of the sprinkler irrigation treatment were higher than those of the conventional treatment. Compared to the conventional treatment, the content of amino acid increased by 12.21% and that of tea polyphenol increased by 17.03% under the sprinkler irrigation treatment.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 524-528 [Abstract] ( 666 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1426KB] ( 259 )
529 Single-point free infiltration characteristics of muddy water film hole irrigation with γ-PGA additive
CHEN Lin, FEI Liangjun, WANG ZiLu, GUO Xin, ZENG Jian, YANG yang
In order to explore the effect of gamma-PGA on soil water infiltration and soil environmental improvement of muddy water film hole irrigation, we used the test of single-point free infiltration of muddy water Film Hole irrigation to study the soil water infiltration and water holding capacity with the different γ-PGA content being mixed with soil(0,0.1%,0.5%,1%). The results indicated that compared with treatment C, the cumulative infiltration volume of C1, C2, C3 were decreased by 17.27%, 30.91% and 42.73%, respectively. The constant infiltration rate of C1, C2, C3were decreased by 17.28%, 35.79% and 57.32%, respectively. But compared with treatment C, the saturated soil moisture content C1, C2, C3 were increased by 7.38%, 35.27% and 39.62%, respectively. The infiltration coefficient in Kostiakov formula reduced from0.132 8 to 0.070 7 and the infiltration index increased from 0.774 6 to 0.812 7. γ-PGA hindered the migration of vertical wetting front and led to keep the soil water in soil root water absorption layer. Butγ-PGA had no effect on the migration of horizontal wetting front and had propulsion function on horizontal movement of soil water. The treatment with 0.5% γ-PGA content was the best. In addition, γ-PGA could change the water distribution in soil profile. γ-PGA could concentrate water in the upper soil to satisfy the full water supply for crop seedling stage and improve irrigation water use efficiency.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 529-535 [Abstract] ( 425 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1455KB] ( 268 )
536 Effects of water and fertilizer on water-salt movement and photosynthetic characteristics of drip-irrigation
BIAN Qingyong, WANG Zhenhua,*, HU Jiashuai, HE Xinlin, LI Zhaoyang
In order to achieve an efficient use of water and fertilizer in saline soil in Xinjiang region, used local "Jun-jujube of the 8 years" as test materials, the effects of water and fertilizer management on soil water-salt movement and photosynthetic characteristic of drip-irrigation jujube were studied by experimented with field. The results showed that irrigation had significant effect on soil moisture merely in the stage of jujube(0-40 cm soil layer),while water-fertilizer coupling had significant effect on jujube soil water content in the whole growth period(0-40 cm and 40-100 cm soil layer). In 0-40 cm, irrigation and water-fertilizer coupling had significant effect on soil salt content in the whole growth period, fertilization had significant effect on soil salt content in the stage of the new tip. In 40-100 cm, water-fertilizer coupling was significant for soil salt content. High irrigation had good effect on the surface soil water holding capacity and water leaching of salinity. Increased fertilization could increase the surface salt.The difference in the soil salt accumulation between the start and end of the experiment indicatied a desalination process during the growth period. Irrigation and water-fertilizer interaction were significant for net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr)and water use efficiency(WUE)in jujube leaves. The net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of jujube could achieve a higher level under W2F1 treatment(820 mm,200-100-150 kg/hm2).Water use efficiency was superior under W3F3 treatment(1020 mm,600-300-450 kg/hm2), but the discrepancy in the two treatments had no statistics significance.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 536-543 [Abstract] ( 460 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1533KB] ( 265 )
544 Effect of saline water irrigation on water-salt distribution and yield of wheat
LI Guoan, JIANG Jing, MA Juanjuan, ZHANG Jibin, GUO Xianghong
Field experiments were carried out in the middle reaches of the Shiyang River Basin from 2014 to 2015. Three irrigation amount levels of 355, 280, and 205mm(W1,W2, and W3)and four water salinity levels of 0.70, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 g/L(S1, S2, S3, and S4)were settled in the experiments. There were 12 treatments in total and three replicates per treatment. The results showed that: Under freshwater irrigation, salt accumulation rate was less than 15%. However, peak value of salt accumulation was in the 20-40 cm layer. About 40-80% of salt which brought by irrigation accumulated around 60 cm depth while water salinity was higher than 3.0 g/L. Yield reduction of spring wheat under salt stress was less than 10% while water salinity was 3.0 g/L. However, yield reduction was up to 28% under water salinity 5.0 g/L and 7.0 g/L. Compared with sufficient irrigationW1 at the same water salinity, yield reduction in W2 and W3 was about 10% and 15%.Jointing to filling stage is the critical water requirement period, therefore, irrigation should be timely applied. Under three irrigation amount levels, root zone water content can be maintained in the range of 60-80% field capacity. It can be concluded that water salinity of 3.0 g/L will not cause a significant yield reduction of spring wheat. Soil moisture can be guaranteed in suitable level with irrigation amount 205-355 mm,and irrigation time should be regulated reasonably.
2018 Vol. 36 (6): 544-552 [Abstract] ( 491 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1767KB] ( 341 )
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