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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2017 Vol.35 Issue.9
Published 2017-09-25

article
article
700
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 700- [Abstract] ( 352 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2543KB] ( 386 )
701
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 701- [Abstract] ( 321 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1164KB] ( 518 )
737 Influences of tongue fillet radius on flow characteristic of annular casing in reactor coolant pump
CHENG Xiao-Rui-1, 2 , BAO Wen-Rui-1, FU Li-1
In order to study influences of tongue fillet radius on flow characteristics of annular casing in a reactor coolant pump, 11 annular casings were designed with various tongue fillet radii for a reactor coolant pump model with 0.4 scaled-down factor. Meanwhile, 10 cross-sections in the annular casings were specified to characterize the flow field for variable fillet radii. The flow fields in the pumps with theses casings were simulated under design condition by using CFD method. The results show that the pressure increases until a peak then decreases along the primary flow direction in the annular casing, the peak is achieved at an 180° circumferential angle measured from the center line of the diffuser along the primary flow. Under the design condition, the hydraulic loss in the annular casing is mainly generated in the first quarter annular fluid region starting from the center line of the diffuser. The fillet radius has a certain impact on pump performance, specially, on the hydraulic performance of the casing, and almost fails to influence on the performance of impeller and guide vane. With increasing fillet radius, the hydraulic loss in the annular casing decreases firstly and then increases, and the minimal loss is reached at a radius <i>R</i>=50 mm. In this case, the hydraulic performance of the casing is the best, and the performance of the pump is optimal. The results can provide a theoretical basis for design of tongue fillet of annular casing.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 737- [Abstract] ( 560 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3908KB] ( 584 )
744 Piecewise least squares polynomial curve fitting algorithm for tested pump performance data
TANG Yue, XIAO Mei, TANG Ling-Di
At present, tested pump performance data are usually fitted with a single polynomial. This method suffers from several disadvantages, such as poor accuracy in irregular or saddle-shaped performance curve fitting, unfavourable approximation to the actual data or even deviation from the actual experimental characteristic data and so on. By comparing various curve fitting methods for pump performance data, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analyzed, and a piecewise least squares polynomial curve fitting method is designed for special saddle-shaped pump performance data. To make sure the continuity and differentiability of piecewise fitted curves, a differential fitting method was adopted to connect the boundary points between two piecewise curves. Finally, a set of experimental pump performance data is fitted by using piecewise least square 3rd-order polynomials and a 5th-order single polynomial, respectively, and the fitted results are analyzed. It is shown that the piecewise least squares 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting method can improve the accuracy in complex performance curve fitting, as a result, the continuity between two fitted curves is guaranteed. 
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 744- [Abstract] ( 640 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1353KB] ( 857 )
749 Influences of volute cross-section area profile on performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump
GAO Bo-1, DU Wen-Qiang-1, YANG Li-1, ZHANG Ning-1, WANG Hao-Yu-1, YUAN Xiao-2
In order to investigate effects of volute cross-section area profile on performance and pressure pulsation of centrifugal pump, a single stage centrifugal pump with a volute respectively in four different cross-section area profiles(convex up, linear, concave down and S-shaped)is involved in the present study. Unsteady turbulent flow field in the pump is simulated and analyzed. Results show that the area profile has a slight influence on the hydraulic performance at design point, the pump head and efficiency are changed by less than 1.4% and 0.4%, respectively, in comparison with the reference case-linear profile. However, at off-design points, the head and efficiency change considerably from one profile to another. Further, velocity distribution in the cross-section largely depends on cross-section area profile. The velocity field in the volute with linear, concave down and S-shaped area profiles is more uniform than that in the volute with convex up area profile. At design point, the volute with convex up and S-shaped area profiles can reduce pressure pulsation level obviously, in particular, the volute with S-shaped area profile results in the lowest pulsation level and is the best configuration. Furthermore, the volute with concave down area profile can intensify pressure pulsation amplitude. The static pressure around the impeller can be altered by volute cross-section area profile, as a result, the magnitude of radial thrust is changed. The average radial thrust on the impeller is the minimum for the linear area profile, but it is the maximum for the convex up area profile. The results can be significant for configuration optimization of volute in a centrifugal pump.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 749- [Abstract] ( 608 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2914KB] ( 540 )
755 Influence of outlet blade angel on performance of centrifugal pump and correction of slip factor
CAO Wei-Dong, ZHANG Yi-Ning, YAO Ling-Jun
In order to analyze the influence of outlet blade angles on the performances of a 25-150/2-30/N two-stage mining centrifugal pump, the steady turbulent flow fields in the pump with four groups of different outlet blade angles were simulated numerically based on the N-S equations and SIMPLE algorithm as well as the standard <i>k-ε</i> turbulence model. The pump performance curves were obtained, and the velocity and pressure distributions in these pumps were analyzed. The results show that outlet blade angle has a significant effect on the pump performance, specially, as the outlet blade angle increases, the head rises gradually, and however, the shaft power tends to be saturated. Although the low pressure area located at the impeller inlet expands, the high pressure area at the impeller outlet shrinks. Meanwhile, the low velocity area on the blade pressure side increases, and even vortexes appear there. Moreover, the Stodola slip factor is correlated to outlet blade angle for the first and second stage impellers, respectively by means of regression method.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 755- [Abstract] ( 1466 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2604KB] ( 828 )
761 Effect of inlet guide vane position on hydraulic performance of bulb tubular pump
DAI Jing-1, LI Yan-Jun-1, YUAN Shou-Qi-1, DAI Qi-Fan-2, LIANG Hao-Jie-2
The hydraulic performance of one bulb tubular pumping system in the Huai′an Third Pumping Station in South to North Water Diversion Project was simulated numerically and validated experimentally, the especially, the effects of inlet guide vane position on the performance were clarified. It was shown the efficiency of the pumping system was improved by 1.28% at the design point when the distance was 500 mm, i.e. 0.064 5<i>D</i>, measured from the guide vane trailing edge to the impeller blade leading edge in comparison with the original design. At the same time, the hydraulic loss in the suction channel was obviously decreased and the uniformity of velocity profile in its cross-section was improved. The uniformity of axial velocity distribution and the weighted average angle of velocity at the outlet of the guide vane were remarkably improved under various working conditions, in consequence, the flow pattern in front of the impeller became better obviously. The influence of inlet guide vane position on the flow in the suction channel and the hydraulic performance of pumping system doesn′t present a simple linear relationship, instead there exists an optimal position between the guide vane trailing edge and the impeller blade leading edge.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 761- [Abstract] ( 462 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1635KB] ( 526 )
767 Relationship between flood level response characteristics in Puyang River and operation of its flood detention basin
ZHANG Hong-Qing-1, 2 , DAI Hui-Chao-3, WAN Wu-Yi-2, BAO Zhong-Jin-1
Flood level characteristics of Puyang River were explored under combined conditions of various flood frequencies in Puyang River and different flood discharge rates for Gaohu flood detention basin based on a 2D hydrodynamic model of Puyang River. The results show that when Puyang River suffers from once flooding in ten years, in twenty years and fifty years the mean flood level at a typical observation point of the east and west branch rivers is reduced by 0.62 m, 0.70 m and 0.59 m, respectively. This suggests that the flood level of two branch rivers are the most sensitive to the discharge rate for Gaohu flood detention basin in the condition of once flooding in twenty years. At the same flood frequency, the water level change at various observation points on the rivers increase with increasing total flood discharge rate at Gaohu. At the same flood discharge rate at Gaohu, the water level change at various observation points on the rivers is the maximum at a flood frequency of once in twenty years in Puyang River. The flood level change reduces gradually from upstream to downstream along two branch rivers, and from their downstream merging point to the discharge reach, the level change, however, increases from their upstream inlet to dividing point and along Fengqiao River reach. The results provide a guidance for optimizing operation and management of Gaohu flood detention basin.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 767- [Abstract] ( 491 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2253KB] ( 574 )
774 A type of distribution control method for nonlinear stochastic systems
DING Yunfei, ZHU Chenxuan
Most nonlinear control systems are inevitably subject to random disturbances, such as systematic measurements and random noises(random vibrations or shocks)in practice, which affect the control of nonlinear systems. In this paper, a stochastic distributed control method is designed for nonlinear systems subject to random perturbations. In this method, the relationship between steady-state response probability density distribution and control target of a nonlinear stochastic system is studied. The control design is divided into two steps: firstly, the actual model with stochastic perturbation is transformed into the nonlinear system Hamiltonian model; then the output of the controlled system satisfies with a prescribed probability density distribution by using a technique for solving exact stationary solution of a nonlinear stochastic system. The convergence of control system is achieved by introducing the Lyapelov function in which the output of a closed-loop nonlinear stochastic system can converge to a pre-defined steady PDF to ensure the closed-loop stability of the controlled system. The results show that the proposed method is effective and can make the controlled system be able to track a pre-defined target steady probability distribution.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 774-779 [Abstract] ( 749 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1415KB] ( 691 )
780 Numerical simulation of effect of Gurney flap on performance of circular arc airfoil
ZHOU Xin, ZHENG Yuan, LI Dongkuo, JIANG Wenqing
To study influences of Gurney flap on aerodynamic behavior of circular arc airfoil, Fluent software was used to simulate air flows around an ordinary airfoil and an airfoil with a Gurney flap in different heights. The principle of lift enhancement of Gurney flap was studied by comparing the difference in their aerodynamic performance at various angles of attack and by analyzing the change in flow field around them. The results demonstrate that Gurney flap improves the distribution of flow field around the circular arc airfoil and its lift has been significantly raised, further the higher the flap height is, the more the lift increases. Its drag decreases a little at small angles of attack and increases at big angles of attack. Under the influence of both lift and drag, the lift-drag ratio of airfoil has been effectively improved at small angles of attack, and the Gurney flap with a height of 2% chord length has the best performance. The appeared Karman vortex and corner vortex in the flow field around the airfoil are the key factors for lift enhancement of Gurney flap.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 780-784 [Abstract] ( 751 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2164KB] ( 657 )
785 Study on characteristics of muddy water flow field in gravity sand sedimentation pool for drip irrigation with river water
TAO Hongfei, QI Yinxin, YANG Haihua, MA Yingjie, ZHAO Jinghua, ZHENG Wenqiang, LIU Yali
Gravity sand sedimentation pool(GSSP)for drip irrigation with river water is a new measure of removing sediment in hydraulic engineering. It has been proved to be a highly efficient water-saving technique since it needs less land, smaller investment, easier maintenance, larger control area, no energy consumption, and lower operation cost. To study the hydraulic performance and flow field characteristics of GSSP, the standard k-ε turbulence model and mixture model were adopted to calculate the sand-water two phase flows in the grit chambers of a GSSP. The numerically simulated results were contrasted with the experimental data, and it was found that the numerical data are in good agreement with the measurements on a physical model. It suggests that the mathematical model adopted can simulate the sand-water two phase flows in the chamber with a certain accuracy and reliability. Based on velocity distributions in the vertical direction, a velocity profile has three different patterns, rapid increase, quick decrease and constant pattern. The sand concentration profile showed four different layers, namely pure water layer, constant concentration layer, subsidence layer and compressed layer. Based on simulated flow fields, a measure should be implemented in the last grit chamber and lateral weir to avoid local reverse flows and vortexes because they can take sediments away with filtered water. As a result, the water-sediment separation efficiency can be improved.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 785-791 [Abstract] ( 809 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1691KB] ( 636 )
792 Effect of delyed irrigation in jointing stage and planting pattern on winter wheat yield and quality
HAN Huifang, REN Yujie, GAO Chao, YAN Zhenxing, LI Quanqi
In order to expore a planting pattern of winter wheat to achieve water contolling and quality increasing objectives in the North China Plain, effects of planting pattern on yeild and qulity of winter wheat were investigated under various irrigation condtions. The expriments were condcuted in 2012-2013 winter wheat growing season, two planting patterns were adopted,wide-precision planting pattern and conventional-cultivation planting pattern, and in each planting pattern, there were three irrigation schemes, namely that no irrigation in the whole growing season, irrigated 60 mm in jointing stage, and irrigated 60 mm in the 10th day after jointing stage. The results show that delayed irrigation in jointing stage leaded to an increased number of kernels per spike, wet gluten content and gluten index significantly. The wide-precision planting pattern increased the number of spikes substantially. The delayed irrigation in jointing stage considerably raised grain yield, protein yield, wet absorption, wet gluten content and dough stability time for the winter wheat in wide-precision planting pattern. In both of the planting patterns, irrigation significantly decreased protein content; however, The delayed irrigation in jointing stage significantly enhanced protein yield. The delayed irrigation in jointing stage significantly increased wet absorption, dough development time, and dough stability time in wide-precision planting pattern. In the condition of irrigated 60 mm during growing season, The delayed irrigation in jointing stage significantly improved winter wheat grain yield and quality in wide-precision planting pattern. These experiments can provide a theoretic evidence and technical support for water controlling and grain quality improvement of winter wheat in the North China Plain.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 792-797 [Abstract] ( 599 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1363KB] ( 563 )
798 Effects of farmland slope on soil moisture in semi-arid loess plateau of Northern Shaanxi
LI Zengyao, ZHAO Xingkai, ZHU Qingke
In order to accelerate the speed of restoration and reconstruction of vegetation in the plateau, moisture in the loess soil must be addressed. At first, the characteristics of aspect and slope gradient are analyzed for the farmland in Wuqi County of Northern Shaanxi. Then, four slope aspects(sunny slope, shady slope, semi-sunny slope, semi-shady slope)are selected, and four slope gradients(35°, 45°, 55° and 65°)are chosen for each slope aspect, finally, the water content in 0-100 cm depth soil is measured and a hierarchical cluster analysis is performed on the data. It is demonstrated that the land with above 35° slope gradient takes up about 39.00% of the total land. The shady slope is in 52.65%, and the sunny slope is 47.35%. The soil water content rises with increasing soil depth and gets saturated eventually. The water content varies significantly along the depth with increasing slope gradient. The slope gradient with shady aspect has the most significant correlation with soil water content. The slope aspect mainly affects overall moisture distribution condition in a slope, and has a less effect on soil moisture distribution along the soil depth. The influences of slope gradient, slope aspect and time span of slope on soil water content are mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm depth; beyond this depth, however, the influences are limited. The same conclusion is achieved after the hierarchical cluster method is applied. The methods used in this paper also can be applied to analyze soil water content in other regions, especially arid and semi-arid regions. The results of this study provide a reference for understanding characteristics of soil water content in steep slopes of Northern Shaanxi and a guide for vegetation restoration.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 798-805 [Abstract] ( 582 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2258KB] ( 528 )
806 Spatial distribution features of soil water and salt with drip irrigation under mulch in Shiyanghe Basin
YANG Zhenghua, WANG Zengli, DONG Pingguo, YANG Hongwei
Field experiments are conducted with drip irrigation under mulch in spring maize growth period to identify spatial distribution features of soil water and salt. The results show that the soil moisture content time-space distribution was influenced by irrigation quota. In irrigation period, the soil moisture content in 0-20 cm layer increases significantly. The desalination layer depth increases with increasing irrigation quota. The obvious desalination occurs in 0-20 cm layer, while soil salt accumulates in 40-100 cm thick layer. The salt-leaching is better in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction, further the salt-leaching is better along the direction from one emitter to another than along the direction from one drip irrigation belt to another belt. In no-irrigation period, soil moisture obviously decreases in 0-60 cm layer because soil water declines continuously caused from a strong evapotranspiration. The soil migrates with water from a deep soil layer to a shallow one. Soil salification occurs in 0-40 cm layer and soil desalination emerges in 40-100 cm layer. However, the desalination develops in whole 0-100 cm layer in border irrigation schedule. The coefficients of variation of soil water and salt are in moderate and low intensity before the jointing stage. Since then, the coefficients of soil water content and salt content are all in moderate intensity after that stage, but the coefficient of variation of soil salt content is lower than that of soil water.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 806-812 [Abstract] ( 493 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2098KB] ( 506 )
813 Comparisons of growth and yield of spring wheat treated with different oxygation techniques
LIU Xin,, LIU Zhiyuan,, LEI Hongjun,, ZANG Ming,, LIU Huan,, YANG Hongguang,, LI Daoxi,
Effects of H2O2 solution(HP0030, HP3000)and cycle aeration treatment(VAI)on growth and yield of spring wheat in the yellow clayey soil of Zhengzhou were investigated in the same irrigation volume and fertilization management with subsurface drip irrigation system. Statistical analysis was performed with software SigmaPlot 12.5 at P≤0.05 level. Compared with the control treatment(CK), the indices of root system in the VAI treatment were significantly increased, however, the indices in the HP0030 and HP3000 treatments were significantly decreased. In the jointing-booting period, the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate in the VAI treatment were increased by 25.46%, 3.15% and 12.80%, respectively. In the flowering period, the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate in the VAI treatment were increased by 15.63%, 13.00% and 14.47%, respectively. Unfortunately, in the jointing-booting period, the transpiration rate in the HP0030 treatment was decreased by 3.81%, and no significant difference was found for stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate. In the flowering period, the stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate in the HP0030 treatment were decreased by 10.94% and 8.56% and no significant difference was found for transpiration rate. The yield and water use efficiency in the VAI treatment were significantly increased, while they were significantly decreased in the HP0030 treatment. There was no significant difference between yield and water use efficiency in the VAI treatment. Comprehensively, the cycle aeration can promote root and crop growth, raise yield of spring wheat, H2O2solution treatments at a concentration of 15 mg/L, however, fail to generate such positive effects.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 813-819 [Abstract] ( 673 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1466KB] ( 671 )
820 Effects of limited irrigation and shading on growth, photosynthesis and yield of Coffea arabica in dry-hot area
QI Yuntao, LIU Xiaogang, YU Xiaodi, ZHU Yifei, HAN Zhihui, YU Ning, YANG Qiliang
In order to clarify the optimal irrigation and shading modes for a high yield of Coffea arabica in hot and dry valley area of Yunnan, three irrigation and four shading schemes are established for field experiment and the coupling effects of water and light on growth, net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, light use efficiency and yield of Coffea arabica are studied. The three irrigation schemes are WL, WM and WH and four shading schemes are S0-no shading, SL-55% shading, SM-75% shading and SH-95% shading. The results show that an increased irrigation can improve plant height and new branch length by 5.60%-12.39% and 10.83%-19.50%, and enhance water use efficiency, light use efficiency and dry bean yield by 16.98%-36.79%, 61.64%-121.95% and 42.27%-120.76%, respectively, compared with WL. Compared with S0, the average daily Pn, Ci, water use efficiency, light use efficiency and dry bean yield of SL have been increased by 5.85%, 10.80%, 6.64%, 28.51% and 20.05%, respectively. Compared with WLS0, the increased irrigation level and shading area can improve water use efficiency, light use efficiency and dry bean production by 13.94%-44.47%, 7.96%-231.04% and 44.55%-143.41% simultaneously. It was noted that WHSL can lead to the largest dry bean production, 6 131.84 kg/hm2. Therefore, from the highest yield point of view, WHSL should be the optimal mode of water-light coupling for Coffea arabica in hot and dry valley area.
2017 Vol. 35 (9): 820-828 [Abstract] ( 707 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1756KB] ( 525 )
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