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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
2017 Vol.35 Issue.6
Published 2017-06-25

2017 Vol. 35 (6): 461-466 [Abstract] ( 610 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3109KB] ( 478 )
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 467-471 [Abstract] ( 748 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1778KB] ( 565 )
472 Influence of axial position of guide vane on reactor coolant pump performance
CHENG Xiaorui,, YE Xiaoting, BAO Wenrui
A three-dimensional numerical investigation was carried out in a reactor coolant pump scale model at three different guide vane axial positions to study the influence of guide vane axial position on internal energy conversion characteristics of impeller, guide vane and pump casing by comparing and analyzing external characteristics, pressure field and velocity field,and based on Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and RNG k-ε turbulent model with multiple reference frame and SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that reducing the distance between the guide vane and the pump outlet pipe axis in the impeller rotation axis direction has great influence on the flow state and hydraulic loss of pump and flow components. Under the part-load conditions reducing that distance makes the efficiency of pump and impeller increase, which improves the flow state and suppresses the backflow phenomenon thus reducing loss of pump casing, but at the same time increasing the loss of guide vane. Under design and over-load conditions reducing that distance makes the efficiency of pump and impeller decrease, but the losses of guide vane and pump casing increase. Because reactor coolant pump′s parameters of the impeller, guide vane and the pump casing are related and influenced, changing the guide vane axial position will influence the coupling-matching characteristics between elements, and then influence the flow state and the energy conversion efficiency of the impeller, guide vane and the pump casing.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 472-480 [Abstract] ( 793 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3770KB] ( 716 )
481 Automatic optimization of axial flow pump based on radial basis functions neural network and CFD
LU Rong, YUAN Jianping, LI Yanjun, JIANG Hongying
Parametric design and computational fluid dynamics(CFD)techniques have been widely applied to the optimum design of fluid machinery. In this paper, the axial flow pump was designed by turbomachinery design software-CFturbo, which was integrated with PumpLinx by batch commands based on Isight software to realize the CFD automatic optimization of axial flow pump. Seven design variables of the blade profile and diffuser were selected through Optimal Latin Hypercube Design(Opt LHD)to generate design points within the selected design space. The hydraulic efficiency at a designed flow rate was set as the objective function. A surrogate model, Radial Basis Functions(RBF)neural network was constructed for the objective function based on the numerical results. Finally, the best combination of the design variables was obtained by solving the approximation model with the Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm(MIGA). The results show that the performance curve simulated by CFD had a good agreement with that of the experiment, thus the RBF model can predict the efficiency accurately. After optimization, the efficiency was improved by 4.46%, while the head kept almost constant under the design condition. Through the Pareto Graph analysis, the significance levels of design variables were obtained, which can provide a certain reference for optimum design of the axial flow pump.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 481-487 [Abstract] ( 887 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2334KB] ( 1262 )
488 Numerical simulation of tunnel of Xiaowan Hydropower Station
CHEN Ruihua, YANG Jijian, MA Lin, HU Zhongke, GAO Lanlan
The tunnel of Xiaowan Hydropower Station with high head water and large discharge has complex hydraulic conditions. The model test has scale effect. By using RNG k-ε turbulence model, and unique FAVOR grid technology of Flow 3D, 3D numerical simulation was conducted for nine wor-king conditions of the tunnel of Xiaowan Hydropower Station. We obtained the discharge capacity, flow pattern, dynamic pressure, water surface, velocity of flow and compared them to those of the model test and prototype observation. The results show that the discharge capacity simulated is a littler greater than that of the model test. There is no gasbag in the pressure section, and the flow regime is smooth in the non-pressure section, there is no water and water-wing to attack the cave roof, and stable cavity is formed behind the aerator. The simulation results are consistent with those of the model test and prototype observation. The velocity of flow and water depth of the model test and the simulation are almost the same and in accord with the characteristics of rapids. The distribution law of dynamic pressure at the inlet of tunnel, turning section, ogee surface and arc segment is the same with that of the model test, showing that the hydraulic parameters of the numerical simulation have a certain accuracy and are more systematic than those of the model test and prototype observation.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 488-494 [Abstract] ( 969 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2005KB] ( 633 )
495 Flow characteristic of guide vane region in turbine braking operation of pump-turbine
LI Qifei,, LIU Mengmeng, ZHANG Jianxun, LIU Qian, ZHANG Zhen
To study the inner flow mechanism of pump turbine in the braking operation with vanes′ abnormal vibration, the numerical simulation was done with the SST k-ω turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The analyses of vane region′s flow and pressure fluctuation were done after comparing with the data from experiment which was finished before. The results show that there exists wake structure after the guide vanes and stay vanes. There will be a loss of energy in the transformation between them and it could cause hydraulic vibration. There also exists impact loss in the inlet of guide vanes which increases the instability of guide vanes region. The instability of the flow in the guide vanes is further verified by the pressure fluctuation monitoring in the guide vanes region. Through the analyses of time domain and frequency domain characteristics, they show that the relative amplitude has reached more than 3 times of normal working conditions of turbine mode and pump mode. The main frequency is theblade frequency with high amplitude. It is an intermediate frequency component which could cause resonance. The results can be used to guide the optimal design of the pump turbine.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 495-501 [Abstract] ( 709 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2360KB] ( 616 )
502 Analysis of flow field and performances in hydrodynamic mechanical seal based on fluid-solid-heat interaction
CHEN Huilong, LI Tong, ZHAO Binjuan, REN Kunteng, WANG Bin
To analyze the influence of the deformation on the fluid film in hydrodynamic mechanical seal, the two-way fluid-solid-heat interaction model of rotating ring-fluid film-stationary ring was set up based on the workbench platform. The internal flow field after deformation as simulated, and founded on the results obtained, the pressure, temperature and velocity in flow field were compared before and after the fluid-solid-heat interaction. At last, the sealing performance including opening force, friction torque and leakage was calculated and the differences of the performance before and after the fluid-solid-heat interaction were analyzed. The results show that the fluid film is compressed in the vicinity of end face on the rotating ring after the two-way fluid-solid-heat interaction calculation, and near the end face of the stationary ring, the fluid film thickness shows significant wavy cyclical fluctuations in the circumferential direction, the average thickness is decreased near the outer diameter, and increased near the inner diameter, while it the maximum change of fluid film thickness is about 16% in this study. The pressure and temperature distribution are similar before and after the coupling, however, the maximum pressure of the fluid film becomes larger which is about 67.0% in the study, the maximum temperature is slightly higher, and the velocity near the root of the spiral groove is reduced. And after considering the fluid-solid-heat deformation, the opening force and leakage become larger significantly, and the friction torque is slightly larger too, and the higher the rotating speed, the greater the differences of the sealing performance parameters.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 502-507 [Abstract] ( 826 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3115KB] ( 619 )
508 Experiment on power output characteristics of umbrella wind turbine
BAO Daorina, SHANG Wei, LI Heng, ZHANG Xiaoyang, HUO Yanan
The output power of the umbrella wind turbine is affected by tower shadow effect, stall, wind shear and other related factors.In the light of the speciality of its umbrella adjusting mode, we introduced the composition and working principle of the umbrella adjusting mechanism, analyzed the to-wer shadow effect of leeward wind turbine in the theory, and carried out the steady state wind experiment on the umbrella adjusting mechanism using wind tunnel.The experiment verified that the design of 5 kW umbrella wind turbine and the adjusting mechanism is reasonable and practical. The power characteristic curve was severely affected by the tower shadow effect when the pinch angle was 60°. We analyzed the causes of different power characteristic curves, finding the attenuation of the machine bevel power output characteristic curve at the wind wheel pinch of 50°-62° and the wind speed of 13.5 m/s-17.0 m/s. We put forward assumption of the increase of different numbers and shapes of guide plates in the vicinity of the umbrella wind turbine blades, thereby reducing the influence of the power attenuation on the power output for the umbrella wind turbine to cope with complex climatic conditions. The experiment provides a good reference for the design of the wind turbine and it is of the theoretical and engineering application value to the research on the wind power generation technology under complex climatic conditions.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 508-514 [Abstract] ( 771 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2528KB] ( 510 )
515 Advances in effect of water-saving irrigation on physiological and biochemical characteristics of tea
MIAO Zimei, CHU Linlin, XIAO Menghua, CAI Bin
The shortage of water resources and seasonal drought frequently affect the normal growth and development of tea plants, which has become the key factor restricting the development of tea in China. Water-saving irrigation is an important means to relieve the crisis of water resources, and it has a significant advantage in improving crop yield and product quality and reducing irrigation volume and so on. Based on research work of scholars for many years, the effects of water-saving agriculture on growth, yield and quality of tea are reviewed and summarized. It is found that the growth and physiological indexes of tea, such as leaf water potential, leaf biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, tea polyphenols and free amino acids, caffeine content, would be changed significantly due to the difference of water-saving irrigation technology, irrigation amount and irrigation interval. Through the review of past research in this field, the innovation water-saving irrigation mechanism in tea plantation is put forward, based on the area division of water-saving irrigation in tea plantation, water consumption and growth quality of tea under different water-saving irrigation, effects of water-saving irrigation on microclimate factors and soil factors in tea plantation, and dynamic response model of growth and quality of tea at different growth stages.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 515-519 [Abstract] ( 794 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1264KB] ( 688 )
520 Water-lead interactive stress effect on growth and physiological characteristics of Jatropha curcas L.
WANG Weihua, LEI Longhai,, YANG Qiliang, WU Zhenzhong
In order to improve the tolerance of Jatropha curcas L. to Pb and its effect on the remediation of contaminated soil and recommend the best water lead combination that does not affect the normal growth, the water lead interaction stress on the influence of growth and physiological characteristics of Jatropha curcas L. was studied.The experiment designed 4 irrigation levels(T1:100%FC, T2:80%FC, T3:60%FC, T4:40%FC),4 soil Pb pollution levels(A:0mg/kg, B:500 mg/kg, C:1 000 mg/kg, D:1 500 mg/kg).The results show that lead water interaction under T2 water stress significantly increased the biomass and repair effect of Jatropha curcas L. Under water lead interaction, the activities of SOD and POD of Jatropha curcas L. were increased first and then decreased. Compared with single water stress and lead stress, SOD and POD activities were increased under the interaction stress.Under the water-lead interaction stress, the cell membrane permeability of Jatropha curcas L. increased, while C and D under the treatment of T2 based on T1 reduced the permeability of cell membrane.Jatropha curcas L. leaf water potential decreased gradually with the increase of water stress when the soil Pb concentration was less than 500 mg/kg, Jatropha curcas L. leaf water potential increased gradually with the increase of water stress, when the soil Pb concentration was more than or equal to 1 000 mg/kg.The appropriate interaction stress can improve the Pb-tolerant stress ability and repair efficiency of Jatropha curcas L.. It provides a theoretical basis for further promoting the practice and promotion in the field of lead contaminated soil of Jatropha curcas L..
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 520-525 [Abstract] ( 640 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1458KB] ( 540 )
526 Effects of spacing pattern and nitrogen levels on photosynthetic characteristics of multiple silage maize under drip irrigation
WANG Zhenhua,,, WANG Jiulong,, LI Wenhao,, FENG Xiaodong,,PEI Lei,,BIAN Qingyong,, ZHU Yankai,
To study the effect of row spacing and nitrogen levels on multiple silage maize photosynthetic characteristics,under the same irrigation quota(288 mm),field experiments were conducted with two spaced modes(KZ,JY)and 5 nitrogen levels(CK:14.04 kg/hm2,F1:97.56 kg/hm2,F2:167.16 kg/hm2, F3:236.76 kg/hm2, F4:306.36 kg/hm2, F5:375.96 kg/hm2).It is shown that silage corn production of KZ at F2-F3levels increased by 5.41%-8.71% compared with that of JY;net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of silage maize at photosynthetic active radiation of 1 500-2 000 μmol/(m2·s-1)were higher.Water use efficiency decreased with the increase of photosynthetic active radiation. At the jointing stage KZ at F2-F3levels was higher than JY; at the spinning tasseling stage KZ was lower than JY. Leaf water use efficiency of KZ was higher than that of JY. At the jointing stage and the silking stage, photosynthetic potential of KZ at F2-F3levels was significantly higher than that of JY. For the production of drip irrigation silage maize at photosynthetic active radiation of 1 500-2 000 μmol/(m2·s-1)and F3 levels, the production of KZ was higher than that of JY.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 526-534 [Abstract] ( 775 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3775KB] ( 582 )
535 Water distribution of mixed media in elevated strawberry cultivation
LU Jiajun, WANG Jizhang, LIU Jizhan, LU Haiyan, LI Pingping,
A test platform for the cultivation of the viaduct was set up. About 10.0, 22.5, 45.0, 90.0, 120.0 mL water were irrigated by drip irrigation, three drip flow rates were set as 1.30 L/h,0.95 L/h and 0.50 L/h, and 6 characteristic water monitoring points were selected in the vertical and horizontal directions in the point profile of drip irrigation. The moisture content of each monitoring point was measured by drying method. The effects of initial water content, drip irrigation flux and drip irrigation amount on the diffusion of water in the soil profile were analyzed. The resucts show that drip irrigation volume for strawberry should not be higher than 90 mL per plant in elevated cultivation. The first 20 min is the peak of water diffusion after the end of drip irrigation, later, water diffusion rate slows down, and the substrate moisture tends to be stable at 60 min;the faster the diffusion rate of the water level, the greater the final diffusion distance, and the larger the wetting radius as the initial water content becomes greater. At three drip flow rates,the first 20 min internal matrix horizontal diffusion distance increment is 3.70 cm, 3.80 cm, 4.00 cm respectively;after 60 min the final horizontal diffusion distance increment is 6.61 cm,6.72 cm,6.90 cm respectively. There is no significant difference among the three treatments. The substrate water content at 10 cm depth of the same distance from the drip irrigation emitter is higher than that at 5 cm depth.After the end of drip irrigation,the maximum difference of the moisture content of the substrate in the groove is 36%, while the value is 24% at the flow rate of 0.50 L/h, whose cultivation groove matrix water rate is more uniform. Therefore, strawberry elevated cultivation should meet strawberry water requirements to determine suitable lower limits of irrigation. In the actual production, it is suitable for high frequency irrigation and drip irrigation quantity for strawberry should not be higher than 90.0 mL per plant. It is better to select moisture monitoring point at 10 cm depth near the root of strawberry to monitor water content of matrix.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 535-540 [Abstract] ( 706 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1462KB] ( 1397 )
541 Influential factor analysis of spraying effect of light hose-fed traveling sprinkling system
DUAN Fuyi,, LIU Jianrui, FAN Yongshen, CHEN Zhen, HAN Qibiao, CAO Hua
In order to obtain the running effect and its relationship with various factors of light hose-fed traveling sprinkler system, according to light hose-fed traveling sprinkler system working perfor-mance, we selected 6 different inlet pressures and 4 different walking gears to test and measure inlet pressure, traveling speed and flow uniformity and pressure sprinkler intensity and analyzed the relationship between them. The results show that inlet pressure and flow present a positive linear correlation. Moreover, speed and inlet pressure also present a positive linear correlation under 4 different gears. CU was computed to find no correlation with inlet pressure, gears(traveling speed), friction loses. CU is only affected by this system′s device. The sprinkling condition is stable in the whole test. Running effects can meet the design demand. CU was up to 89.5%, which is the highest value of CU, when inlet pressure was 0.45 MPa. Irrigation depth was affected by discharge and traveling speed. When discharge was set to a constant, irrigation depth was reduced with the traveling speed increasing, presenting a curve downward trend.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 541-546 [Abstract] ( 677 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2726KB] ( 536 )
547 Hydraulic performance comparison of impact sprinkler PY30 with and without aeration
XU Zhengdian, XIANG Qingjiang, ZOU Chenhai, CHEN Chao
Based on the structures of impact sprinkler PY30, a gas suction pipe was inserted in the middle position of the sprinkler tube to form an aeration impact sprinkler. As the fixed and rotating impact sprinkler works at the low pressure, the gas-liquid two-phase jet spray could improve the hydraulic performance of the sprinkler. With the same flow rate at the working pressure of 100 kPa, 200 kPa and 300 kPa respectively, impact sprinklers with or without aeration were comparatively studied. Experiments were carried out to study the sprinkler hydraulic parameters affected by the gas-liquid jet and the variation of gas flow rate, including the water distribution in the radial direction, the ranges of jet and so on. At the same time, the combination uniformity coefficient in different distance was calculated for square arrangement mode. The results showed that at the same working pressure and flow rate, PY30 impact sprinkler and its aeration impact sprinkler had nearly the same jet range. With re-ference to the outlet of sprinkler nozzle, the gas suction pipe moved from-1.5 mm to 0 mm and 2.0 mm, the vacuum of gas suction pipe increased gradually and the amount of gas flow rate q became larger. In the meantime, the water distribution of the impact sprinkler was compared with that of the aeration impact sprinkler, the precipitation in the middle range of sprinkler water jet was enhanced gra-dually and the peak tended to the interval values. At the working pressure of 200 kPa and 300 kPa, the optimum combination distance of the aeration impact sprinkler is R and the combination uniformity coefficients of the sprinkler irrigation are 2.5% and 1.9% greater than those of the impact sprinkler.
2017 Vol. 35 (6): 547-552 [Abstract] ( 747 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1588KB] ( 580 )


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