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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2016 Vol.34 Issue.4
Published 2016-04-25

277 Influence of steam generator channel head on reactor coolant pump inflow field
HOU Xiangtao, WANG Pengfei, XU Zhongbin, RUAN Xiaodong
To study the effect of AP1000 steam generator(SG)channel head on reactor coolant pump(RCP)inflow field, through modeling integrally the channel head of SG and RCP, the three-dimensional flow field of the above coupling models was simulated by the CFD method and the influence of SG channel head on RCP inflow field was studied on steady and transient conditions. On the steady condition, the accuracy of the numerical model was verified through comparing numerical simulation results with experimental results of the scaled RCP under uniform inflow. On the transient condition, time step independence was verified to study accurately the pressure fluctuation characteristics. Results show that at RCP inlet, SG channel head causes non-uniform circumferential axial velocity and two vortices which rotate in the opposite direction. On the transient condition, there are two-low pressure regions at RCP inlet and standard deviation of monitor points′ pressure coefficient is increased by 53%-90%, compared with the condition of uniform inflow. Because of SG channel, RCP inflow generates prewhirl and approaches the impeller blades at a big incidence angle which reduce the head and efficiency by 1.5%-7.7% and 2.6%-4.1% respectively.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 277-282 [Abstract] ( 1294 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2096KB] ( 774 )
283 Pressure fluctuation near double volute tongue for double-suction centrifugal pump
WANG Jiabin, CHEN Jia, YUAN Shouqi, PEI Ji, MENG Fan
To study the pressure fluctuation near double volute tongue of a large flow rate double-suction centrifugal pump, the three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow was numerically simulated with CFD software under different operational conditions. The characteristics of flow field and pressure fluctuation of the monitoring points near volute tongue were obtained, and pressure fluctuation intensity as well as the time and frequency spectra was analyzed respectively. The results show that high-pressure fluctuation intensity areas are mainly located between impeller outlet and volute tongue, which shows that the interaction of impeller and tongue will cause strong pressure fluctuation near volute tongue. Fluctuation intensity under 1.0Qd flow rate near both volute tongues is lower than that under large and small flow rates, and the distribution of pressure fluctuation intensity near A tongue becomes uniform gradually with the increasing of flow rate. Under 1.0Qd flow rate examined, in A tongue width direction, the double rotating frequency dominates the pressure fluctuation on middle position while other two sides are only one blade passing frequency; the dominant frequency on middle position and one side in B tongue width direction is double blade passing frequency while the other side is only one blade passing frequency. Under 1.0 Qd and 1.2Qd flow rate, the dominant frequency is double blade passing frequency at point P0 on middle position in A tongue width direction while it is only one blade passing frequency under 0.8Qd,and unapparent change of amplitude can be found for any flow rates in A tongue width direction, however, the pressure fluctuation amplitude on the same position near B tongue increases significantly under the conditions of 0.8Qd and 1.2Qd flow rate.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 283-288 [Abstract] ( 1354 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1954KB] ( 860 )
289 Effects of radial diffuser outlet pattern on pulsation of sprayer pump
JIANG Linglin, LIU Houlin, WANG Kai, SHAO Chang
In order to investigate the effects of radial diffuser outlet pattern on exterior characteristic, pressure fluctuations and radial force of self-suction sprayer pump,the Shear Stress Transport turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm were applied to simulate the unsteady flow of three different kinds of radial diffuser. The pressure fluctuations located at the outlet of radial diffuser and the radial force imposed on the volute were monitored. Time domains of the pressure fluctuations were analyzed and the pressure fluctuation amplitude and the radial force of were compared. The results show that with the exit area of radial diffuser inreasing, flow patterns located at the outlet of radial diffuser are improved and then the efficiency of the centrifugal pump is increased. At the same rate, with the exit area of radial diffuser increasing, the pressure fluctuation amplitude located at the outlet of radial diffuser is reduced. Besides, the damage of rotor-stator interaction between radial diffuser and second-stage impeller and the radial force imposed on the volute are reduced. The time-average radial force imposed on the wall is increased with the decreasing of the flow rate.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 289-293 [Abstract] ( 1046 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1674KB] ( 696 )
295 Effects of axial clearances between impeller front shroud and pump body on axial force
LI Caihong, XUE Zhikuan, LI Hong
In order to study the influence of axial clearance between the front cover plate and the pump body on the axial force,traditional theoretical calculation method was used to obtain the axial force of the pump first, then based on CFX software, RNG k-ε turbulent model and high order algorithm were used to perform numerical simulations for the whole flow field of centrifugal pump. The external cha-racteristics of the pump, static pressure variation between the axial clearance and the axial force of the rotor components were obtained by changing the axial clearance between the impeller front shroud and the pump body. The effects of axial clearance on the hydraulic performance and the axial force of the impeller were analyzed. Through the numerical simulation, it was found that the head and the efficiency of the pump decrease gradually with the increasing of the clearance between the impeller front shroud and the pump body; the static pressure in the impeller and the auxiliary impeller changes a little, and the static pressure changing in the clearance between front cover plate and the pump body is obvious;the axial force of the pump increases first and then decreases with the increase of the clearance between the impeller front shroud and the pump body.The error ratio of the head between numerical simulation result and experiment is 0.84% and the maximum error ratio of the axial force between theo-retical calculation result and numerical simulation is 5.75%.The numerical simulation method verified the accuracy of the axial force of the new type pump by the empirical formula.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 295-300 [Abstract] ( 4352 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1781KB] ( 896 )
301 Effects of impeller diameter on pressure pulsation in a double- channel sewage pump under partial conditions
DING Rong, TAN Minggao, LIU Houlin, ZHANG Jing, HE Naichang
In order to analyze the influence of D2(101, 103 and 105mm)on pressure pulsation under partial conditions, the unsteady solid-liquid two-phase flow of the double-channel sewage pump was numerically simulated by using the Mixture multiphase flow model, and the results were verified perfectly by experiment.The partial condition mainly includes small flow rate of 0.6Qd and large flow rate of 1.2Qd. The results showed that the pressure pulsation of volute circumference under 0.6Qd generally increased with the increase of D2, and the maximum increase reached 53.2% when the impeller dia-meter increases from 103 mm to 105 mm, while except points VP3, VP6 and VP7, the pressure pulsation of volute circumference under 1.2Qd increased slightly with the increase of D2.The pressure pulsation of volute circumference varies severely with angle change under 0.6Qd and 1.2Qd.The smaller impeller diameter is contributed to reduce the pressure pulsation in the pump under 0.6Qd and 1.2Qd. Instantaneous static pressure of each monitoring point around the tongue in all solid-liquid two-phase flow conditions fluctuates sharply when D2 is 105 mm. For each monitoring point near the tongue under the solid-liquid two-phase flow, the dominant frequency of pressure pulsation under 0.6Qd usually is of the low frequency, while the dominant frequency under 1.2Qd is of the blade passing frequency, the pressure pulsation maximum amplitude of these points basically increased with the increase of D2 under 1.2Qd. The research results provide the basis for the optimization design of double-channel sewage pump.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 301-306 [Abstract] ( 1030 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1990KB] ( 786 )
307 Numerical simulation of axial pump unit startup process using VOF model
ZHOU Daqing, LIU Yuefei
To reveal the start-up transient laws of the external parameters and the flow pattern in the passage of the axial pump unit, three-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted on the geometrical model of the whole flow system including the inlet conduit, runner, stay vanes, siphon outlet passage and upstream reservoir under the two conditions: preopening vacuum breaker valve and maintaining the valve close. The volume of fluid(VOF)model was adopted and the Realizable k-ε turbulence model was applied to close the governing equations. Numerical results showed that when the water flow went over the hump, the air within the outlet passage continuously was involved into the water and discharged by the vortex in the declining section of the outlet passage so that siphon formed eventually. The larger the original bubbles in the outlet passage were, the longer the time of syphon formation required. Compared with the scheme of keeping the vacuum breaker valve closed, opening the vacuum breaker valve in advance can make the maximum pump lift decrease by 30% and the start-up time shortened by 64%.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 307-312 [Abstract] ( 1058 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2324KB] ( 625 )
313 Application the friction type ship blocking facilities in Yangtze River tidal zone sluice gate station project
QIAN Fujun, ZHOU Heping, XIA Weizhong
The traditional linear type ship blocking facilities are not strong in respect of interception ability, and it is easy to damage and difficult to repair after suffering ship collision. In addition,the tension degree of steel rope to intercept the river is not easy to control when the water level variation range is large. In order to solve the above practical engineering problems, this paper uses Gaogang sluice gate station of Taizhou Yinjiang Canal as example to make study of the tidal river sluice gate station friction type ship blocking facilities, conducts the corresponding mechanics calculation, and introduces the design of tensioning device which can keep the ship blocking facilities adapt to water level changes. The calculation results show that the ship blocking facility with belt tension function is feasible, which is designed based on the model that the ship which impact the wire rope is a plane linear motion and the impact point is at the midpoint of wire rope.The research achievements can guarantee that the wire rope will implement progressive force interception to ships when the ship hit the wire rope, which can ensure that the ship hits the wire rope without damage and facilitates her itself-help as well as the function of intercepting facilities returning to normal. Hammer type constant tension tensioning system can make the ship stopped facilities adapt themselves to the change of the tidal river water level, so that the wire rope can keep at a good tension standby state. It is significant for the safety of the tidal zone sluice gate station engineering and passing ships.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 313-320 [Abstract] ( 783 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1580KB] ( 680 )
321 Experiment and numerical simulation of vibration characteristics of hydrofoil in cavitating flow
WANG Ning, HUANG Biao, WU Qin, WANG Guoyu
This paper aims to investigate the unsteady cavitation behaviour and the corresponding cavity induced vibrations. The high-speed camera and a single point laser Doppler vibrometer(LDV)are used to analyze the transient cavitating flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The k-ω SST turbulence model with the turbulence viscosity correction and the Zwart cavitation model are introduced to the present simulations. The fluid model is coupled with a chordwise rigid, two degrees-of-freedom system with the hybrid coupled fluid structure interaction model. The results showed that the maximum vibration amplitude keeps relatively small for the inception cavitation and sheet cavitation, increases dramatically for the cloud cavitation and declines for the supercavitation. The main flow-induced frequency, which is in accord with the cavity shedding frequency, reduces with the decrease of the cavitation number. Owing to the disturbance caused by the flow-induced flutter and deformation of the foil, it presented more complex cavitation patterns for the flexible hydrofoil, as well as more components in the vibration spectra.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 321-327 [Abstract] ( 1152 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2561KB] ( 892 )
328 Fault tree intelligent diagnosis technology for wind turbine drivetrain
REN Yan,,, BI Yaxiong, WANG Dekuan, SUN Yuan, ZAHANG Kai, DAI Angi
In order to slove the practical problems of the wind turbine drivetrain with complex structure, the fault tree intelligent diagnosis technology was used for the fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain. Through the fault tree analysis, combined with drivetrain fault type and the mechanism analysis, the wind turbine drivetrain fault tree intelligent diagnosis system was built. By using hybrid knowledge representation based on the framework for the fault tree, the relationships both between the fault and fault characteristics and between the fault and fault source were analyzed. The reasoning mechanism from the top events was used to the intermediate and to the basic events, to determine the state of each node on the fault tree, then to find out the source of trouble; finally, by use of the fault tree intelligent diagnostis technology in this study, the fault example of wind turbine drivetrain of 3# wind turbine in some wind farm was analyzed. By vibration analysis, the fanlt characteristics of gear box, main shaft and coupling were extracted, by which it was initially defined as bearing damage. According to the damage reason, the cleanness and lubrication condition of bearing were checked. The waste oil was pure yellow, with inside iron clear. It was shown that the fault source was the gear box bearing lubrication.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 328-331 [Abstract] ( 1052 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3014KB] ( 1620 )
332 Experiment on soil evaporation of summer maize in furrow irrigation
LIU Xiaofei,, FEI Liangjun, SUN Jingsheng, ZHANG Jiyang, WANG Shunsheng
In order to explore the law of the soil evaporation in summer maize farmland under furrow irrigaton, the experiment on the evaporation capacity of summer maize farmland soil and that of ridge and ditch under different furrow irrigation controlling lower limits was conducted. The results showed that the evaporation capacity of summer maize farmland soil reduced with the decrease of soil moisture. Soil evaporation took up a great proportion before the jointing stage in the whole growth period. Soil evaporation capacity at the seedling stage and the jointing stage accounted for 90% and 40% or so in the transpiration capacity respectively. The linear regression equation for the evaporation of ridge and ditch under different water treatments was fitted, the correlation coefficients were over 0.8,and finally soil evaporation after an irrigation after the heading stage and at the seedling stage of summer maize was compared,both of soil evaporation had a decreasing tendency with the lapse of time. The evaporation ratio of ridge to ditch was maintained at about 20:13,which will provide a reference for soil water cycle simulation of summer maize farmland under furrow irrigation. In farmland evaporation of summer maize under furrow irrigation, soil evaporation capacity should be controlled before the jointing stage in order to save water.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 332-338 [Abstract] ( 1970 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1559KB] ( 763 )
339 Triangle coordinate diagram automatic recognition system software design based on WPF:a case study of soil texture
LI Jianbo, FANG Zongqi, JI Quanju, WANG Weihua
Based on the flat triangular coordinate diagram, the defects of artificial lookup method used for naming and classifying the three-component systems were pointed out. Taking soil texture classification triangle as example, the design idea of the soil texture automatic recognition system(STARS)was put forward and the method of parsing and programming for the classifying boundary of the above systems was introduced. Visual Studio was used as development tools, windows presentation foundation was used to implement system interface development(foreground code), C# language was used to complete the business logic(code-behind), and dynamic dependent libraries NPOI was used to achieve operating Excel file, and finally the STARS was created. The classes design and algorithm design required in the process of building the STARS were described, which intended to provide a method and theoretical guidance for the automatic recognition system establishment of other three-component system′s flat triangular coordinate diagram. The method is easy to learn, and the software interface is beautiful. Furthermore, the STARS has fast computing speed, large data processing capacity, zero false positives, high robustness and fault tolerance.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 339-345 [Abstract] ( 1334 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1723KB] ( 904 )
346 Effect of bulk density on red loam horizontal infiltration and Cl- transport characteristics
ZHAO Xinyu, GAO Jinlong, GU Pengfei
In order to study the one-dimensional infiltration and Cl- transport characteristics at different bulk density of red loam, indoor horizontal one-dimensional infiltration experiment was carried out.The infiltration solution was the KCl solution WHOSE concentration was 0.1 mol/L,the experimental soil was red loam and the soil bulk density was set to five different levels of 1.20,1.25,1.30,1.35,1.40 g/cm3.And the theoretical analysis was done after experiment.The results showed that bulk density affects significantly red loam water infiltration and Cl- migration. Furthermore,infiltration rate, cumulative infiltration volume and wetting front decreased with the increase of soil bulk density. After infiltration,the content of Cl- in the soil had a negative correlation with soil bulk density. Philip infiltration model or Kostiakov infiltration model can accurately reflects the relationship between cumulative infiltration and time of different bulk density red soil under one-dimensional infiltration condition(R2>0.98).The coefficient S and K of two models decrease with the increase of soil bulk density,it shows cumulative infiltration and red soil bulk density is negatively correlated.The results can provide theore-tical support for cotton irrigation and fertilization in red loam areas.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 346-350 [Abstract] ( 886 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1505KB] ( 755 )
351 Comprehensive benefit evaluation of water resources in irrigation district based on matter element extension model
TIAN Lang, LIU Yongqiang, WANG Zhen, CAO Ruizhe, XIAO Junlong
In order to evaluate the comprehensive benefit of water resources in irrigation district,the evaluation model was established by using the matter element extension theory, which took the comprehensive benefit of water resources, characteristic and the corresponding characteristic value as a matter element. Evaluation index system was established by taking three aspects:economic benefit, social benefit and ecological environment benefits into consideration. The weight of index was determined by its contribution rate to the comprehensive benefit of water resources.Furthermore, five-level evaluation criteria were proposed. Taking the Zhanghe irrigation district of Hubei Province as an example, the established model was used to evaluate the comprehensive benefit of water resources of it in 2013.The evaluation results were verified by local sensitivity analysis method and the conclusion shows that evaluation results are accurate and reliable,with a good sensitivity.Evaluation results show that the comprehensive benefit of water resources in Zhanghe irrigation is "general" in 2013.At the same time, it can be seen that social benefit and environmental benefit are slightly worse than economic benefit of water resources in this irrigation district.It is seen that the matter element extension model has good practicality and scientifical siginificance in comprehensive benefit evaluation of water resources.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 351-356 [Abstract] ( 830 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1342KB] ( 705 )
357 Sand filter performance on drip irrigation with the Yellow River
ZHANG Jiewu, FENG Ji, XU Feipeng, MO Fangyuan
The Yellow River undisturbed sediment was used to collocate the test water. The filter performance was tested with homogeneous quartz of different particle sizes under different filtration velocities. The results show that head loss increases with the time increasing. The water head loss is on the rise when the flow velocity increases under the same filter material particle size. The water turbidity decreases with the time increasing. The water turbidity decreases after an increase with flow velocity increasing. The particles of different sizes which are adsorbed by the filter surface or pass through the gaps increase with the velocity increasing, therefore the head loss increases with the increase of the speed and degree of clogging. The particle filter surface area decreases with particle size increasing and the gaps among the filter particles increase. The retention and adsorption capacity of filter material for the particles decrease and the head loss can be reduced. Since the filter material loses the ability to re-adsorb other impurities, after running for some time various impurities were attached to the filter material surface, the turbidity removal decreases. This research provides a theoretial basis for the optimal filter mode selection for the Yellow water drip irrigation.
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 357-361 [Abstract] ( 950 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1754KB] ( 720 )
363 Measurement of the template curve of plough body based on stereo vision and structured light
XING Zuochang, TIAN Subo, LIU Siyao, LIN Jing, ZHANG Zuli
With plough shin as the experimental object, using structured light and binocular stereo vision, under laboratory conditions, the 3D reconstruction and measurement system of hot plough body′s template curves is built, and the extraction algorithm of non-Gaussian distribution laser stripe′s sub-pixel center and edge detection methods of morphology is proposed. Based on the 3D correction of original image, the second correction and high-precision matching algorithm are studied, and the accuracy and speed of stereo matching and 3D reconstruction are improved. On Halcon platform, the center extraction, reconstruction, fitting and mathematical description of the plough body′s template curves of structured light are realized, the difficult problem of measurement of the template curves of plough body, especially of hot forging plough body is solved. It provides a new way for the inspection, mapping, description, manufacturing and design of the plough body. Running on the Intel(R)Core(TM)i7-5500U CPU@2.40 GHz processor, the measurement accuracy is 1.88 mm, and time consuming is 316 ms. The experimentald results show that the structured light and binocular stereo vision can be used to measure the template curve of the plough body, and the influence of hot forging radiation light and other interference effects are avoided. It has a certain accuracy and feasibility, and can improve the efficiency of the design, manufacture and test of the plough body. 
2016 Vol. 34 (4): 363-369 [Abstract] ( 899 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2426KB] ( 1338 )
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