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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2016 Vol.34 Issue.2
Published 2016-02-25

93
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 93-98 [Abstract] ( 866 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2244KB] ( 472 )
99 Influence of abnormally low head on pressure fluctuation of pump turbine
LI Qifei, TAN Haiyan, LI Rennian, JIANG Lei, LYU Wenjuan
In order to study the pressure fluctuation characteristics of a pump turbine under the abnormally low head, Realizable k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the unsteady flow of four opera-ting points. The pressure signals of the four monitoring points,i.e. in the inlet of spiral casing, after the guide vanes and before the runner, in the upstream of the draft tube cone and inside the draft tube elbow, are achieved and compared with the experimental results. And then, the pressure signals under the operating condition a0=37 mm and Q11=0.865 m3/s are analyzed in the time domain and frequency domain respectively. It is concluded that Realizable k-ε turbulence model can accurately si-mulate the pressure fluctuation in the larger guide opening of pump turbine. The pressure fluctuation of the inlet of the spiral casing is relatively disorder. When the unit is just open, the pressure fluctuation value is relatively great. The main frequency of pressure fluctuation in the inlet of the spiral casing is 19.78 Hz, equal to the rotational frequency,showing that in this condition, the pressure fluctuation in the inlet of spiral casing of the pump turbine is influenced by the rotating of the runner in the downstream. Because the pressure fluctuation in the vaneless space between the guide vane and the runner is affected by the static and dynamic interference, its change is periodic and main frequency is equal to the blade passing frequency. Owing to the internal flow and the vortex strip in the draft tube, the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube is a low-frequency fluctuation and its main frequency is 0.35 times the frequency of the runner passing through.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 99-104 [Abstract] ( 892 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2231KB] ( 714 )
105 Effects of volute cross-section shape and impeller position on volute type axial flow pump performance
WANG Dangxiong, CAO Weidong, ZHANG Yining, LIU Xiaojuan, MA Jinxing
In view of this situation that the study on the volute type axial flow pump volute design optimization, the external features and internal flow field distribution is less, the 3D flow in the volute type axial flow pump was numerically simulated by using ANSYS CFX 14.5 software, based on Reynolds-averaged equations closed by the standard k-ε model. Three kinds of new volutes combined with impellers were simulated. The head and efficiency at the design flow rate are the lowest in case of horseshoe-section volute. The 3D flow numerical simulation between the impeller at 4 different axial positions and the volute in terms of relatively higher hydraulic efficiency was carried out. The results show that when the exit of the impeller and the volute inlet middle plane are 40 mm apart, axial flow pump efficiency is the highest. When the impeller exit and the volute inlet middle plane are 80 mm apart, axial flow pump efficiency is the lowest. In this case, between the impeller and volute and in the volute exist substantial reflux and whirlpool. The relative position of axial flow impeller and volute have ob-viously affects the flow-head curve and the flow-efficiency curve.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 105-109 [Abstract] ( 1094 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1859KB] ( 831 )
110 Influences of guide vane-casing volute positions on performance of nuclear reactor coolant pump
YANG Minguan, WANG Da, GAO Bo, LU Sheng
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the internal flow field, based on Reynolds-average equations and RNG k-ε turbulence model, are carried out in the study on axial and circumfe-rential positions between guide vane and casing volute of a ns=390 mixed-flow nuclear reactor coolant pump. Energy performance is used to analyze internal flow and acquire the prime position between guide vane and casing volute. The result shows that different positions have an influence on hydraulic efficiency and internal flow. Hydraulic efficiency in an ideal position scheme has increased by 0.6%, equal to 1/4 of guide vane outlet width, between the shroud and central plane of casing outlet. Meanwhile, it has increased by 0.8% with a better internal flow performance as the symmetric axial plane and the vane outlet are at the same circumferential position. Results contribute to the design and optimization of a nuclear pump as well as internal flow control.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 110-114 [Abstract] ( 918 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 4712KB] ( 671 )
115 Numerical analysis on velocity field of water-jet pump under non-uniform inflow
JIN Shibin, CAO Puyu, WANG Yang
To research the correlation between non-uniform inflow and the hydrodynamics of water-jet pump, the outflow velocity field in the intake duct was analyzed by the CFX-Post software. The velocity field of non-uniform outflow was selected as the inflow boundary condition in the process of simulation, and the hydrodynamics of water-jet pump was achieved. Then the comparison of hydrodynamics between non-uniform and uniform inflow conditions was carried out. The results show that the hydrodynamics of water-jet pump in the non-uniform inflow condition is lower than that in the uniform inflow condition. With the non-uniformity of the inflow field increasing, the decreasing amplitude of the head and efficiency is increasing. According to velocity components of non-uniform, the reason that the pump hydrodynamics reduced in the non-uniform inflow condition was analyzed. Results show that the traditional design method can not meet the working requirements, and the correlation assumptions are unavailable to the condition of non-uniform inflow. The existence of inlet pre-swirling in the non-uniform inflow field is against the "no pre-swirling" hypothesis, so the angle of attack and the lift coefficient of airfoils decrease. The interaction between axial and radial velocity in the non-uniform inflow field results in the nonlinear distribution of the meridional velocity and circulation. The circumference independence assumption is invalid owing to the change of radial velocity. The non-uniform inflow also impacts the field of blades, which is concentrated at the shroud. The secondary circumfluence blocks the flow passages, and weakens the flow capacity of the water-jet pump. Meanwhile, it contributes to the deviation curve of blade loading at the shroud, and impairs the working ability of the water-jet pump. In conclusion, the non-uniform inflow is the major reason for the decrement of propulsion efficiency,therefore the non-uniform inflow condition should be considered during the process of water-jet pump designing.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 115-121 [Abstract] ( 1024 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2721KB] ( 752 )
122 Internal flow analysis of centrifugal pumps influenced by flow, motor and electricity
SUN Hui, YUAN Shouqi, LUO Yin, GUO Yihang
In order to improve the accuracy of unsteady load torque computational results for centrifugal pumps, the type IS65-50-160-00 centrifugal pump and Y160M-2 B3 three-phase asynchronous motor were selected as computational model. Joint simulation of the centrifugal pump and motor was conducted by means of software Fluent and Matlab. The C++ interface program for software communication was designed on basis of TCP/IP communication protocol. A bidirectional synchronization coupling simulation platform was established. This could realize data transmission of rotational speed and torque during the process of computing unsteady characteristics of centrifugal pumps. It was shown that if the rotating speed was set as constant, the calculated pump head and efficiency were deviated from experimental data by 8.66% and 5.24% under the design condition. But if the rotating speed was set as variable, the calculated pump head and efficiency were deviated from experimental data by 2.45% and 2.47% under the design condition. This means the method could provide more correct and reliable prediction performance of pump. This joint simulation method based on Fluent/Matlab has brought into the effect of motor on pump operation and considered the fact of variable rotating speed. The method has improved the accuracy and reliability of calculating results, which could provide a new method for further research on internal unsteady flow characteristics of centrifugal pumps.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 122-127 [Abstract] ( 1237 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1820KB] ( 923 )
128 Numerical simulation of two-phase turbulent flow in Francis turbine passage on sediment erosion
HUANG Jianfeng, ZHANG Lixiang, YAO Ji, LONG Liyan
This study aims to investigate the flow behavior of solid-liquid two-phase flow based on sediment erosion in Francis turbine, the numerical simulation of three-dimensional two-phase turbulent flow in the Francis turbine passage was conducted by the mixture model for an algebraic slip formulation in the Euler—Euler approach based on the CMFD theory, the polyhedron mesh technique, standard k-ε model, SIMPLEC algorithm and multiple reference frame model. The silt volume fraction distributions in guide vanes and blade passage were obtained in the small opening case by the ANSYS Fluent software. The position and degree of sediment erosion in the Francis turbine passage were analyzed. The simulation results coincided with the distribution of sediment particles on the blade runner practical wear. The results show that this method can be used to simulate the 3D turbulent flow and true multiphase flow with sediment erosion in Francis turbine,which provides a significant reference for revealing the influence mechanism of the sediment particles interacting with water in the solid-liquid two-phase turbulent flow field that can induce turbine vibration and solving practical engineering problems.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 128-133 [Abstract] ( 959 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1433KB] ( 916 )
134 Application of projection pursuit method in pumping station safety evaluation
CAO Ruizhe,, TIAN Lang,, GUO Rong,, XIAO Junlong,
In order to evaluate the in-service pumping station building security status, a pumping station building safety evaluation system is built. Importance of safety evaluation index is analyzed, the projection pursuit method which is an objective weighting method of pumping station building safety evaluation is specially analyzed. Data is calculated according to the measured value of the pumping station building safety evaluation index. It is calculated through the projection pursuit method model, and the calculation results are analyzed,combined with the principle of projection pursuit method based on genetic algorithm. A pumping station in Jiangsu Province is used as an example. Index importanc of each index layer of the pumping station building security status is studied. Two indicator layers: concrete structure safety status and station body stability safety status indicators layer are studied. The projection pursuit model is used to analyze the importance of each evaluation index under each indicator layer. Matlab genetic algorithm toolbox is applied to compute each evaluation index weight. The results show that the measured strength of concrete is most important in the pumping station concrete structure safety status indicator layer, and the index weight of stability against sliding in the pumping station stand body stability safety index layer is the largest.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 134-138 [Abstract] ( 970 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1341KB] ( 708 )
139 Spatial variability analysis of talus slope deformation caused by unloading
RUAN Yongfen, LIU Kewen, GAO Bingxun, HUANG Xingzhou
The analysis of time variability of talus slope under its unloading process is conducted by the geostatistics theory and genetic algorithm to fit the spatial variation function. The grid processing for the actual observation point layout is carried out by using angle error limit and range error limit, then the variation function of each direction is calculated, furthermore variability analysis for talus slope under the unloading condition is carried out; meanwhile, the directional synthetic variance index is constructed. By the analysis of the maximum variability in the direction, its displacement change should be carefully detected. The negative weight of ordinary Kriging equations is corrected by the eutropy theory, and then the ordinary Kriging estimation of estimated point displacement of accumulation body slope under the unloading process is carried out. The theory of the proposed deformation of slope unloading to the actual monitoring data analysis of spatial variability, and the theoretical results fit well with the actual monitoring results. This model is proved to be correct and feasible of the theory, also it provides a new idea and train of thought for the deformation analysis.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 139-145 [Abstract] ( 941 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1549KB] ( 707 )
146 Optimization of irrigation channel section based on cat swarm algorithm and analysis on design parameters
SHANG Guanlei, LIU Dong,,,, HU Yuxiang
In order to replace some inefficient empirical test algorithms of engineering designs, this paper presents cat swarm optimization(CSO)is presented to solve the problem of channel cross-section optimization. To meet with other constraints, choosing suitable slope can reduce land occupation and save investment.At the same time,this paper searches the effect of the slope coefficient change on the channel cross-section optimization under the global space based on CSO and has achieved good results.Taking Jiangchuan irrigation area in Heilongjiang Province as example, irrigation channel section is optimized and the design parameters are analyzed. The examples show that this method has the advantages of high efficiency and high precision and so can solve the problem of channel cross-section optimization effectively. The result shows that area of channel sections reduced by 4.2% and the land occupation also reduced. For parameters, objective function is the best when channel slope is 1.5, width of channel bottom is 2.000 0 m and height of channel is 1.500 0 m. And the effects of these parameters on objective function are analyzed.The best goal showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing along with the increase of channel slope and height of channel,and showed a trend of increasing along with the increase of width of channel bottom.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 146-150 [Abstract] ( 968 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2045KB] ( 867 )
151
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 151-156 [Abstract] ( 789 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1584KB] ( 503 )
157 Effects of soil salt on soil water-salt dynamic and photosynthetic characteristics of spring wheat
PEI Lei,, WANG Zhenhua,, ZHENG Xurong,, LI Wenhao,
Barrel experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of soil salt content on soil water-salt dynamics and physiological indices of drip irrigated spring wheat and to provide theoretical foundation and technical support for planting spring wheat in saline-alkali soils. Different soil salt contents(i.e. 0.15%(CK), 0.80%, 1.10%, 1.40%, 1.70%, 2.00%, 2.30%, 2.60%)were set up; soil water-salt dynamics and physiological indices of drip irrigated spring wheat were studied. The results showed that the overall variation of soil water content presented a decreasing trend in the whole growth period of spring wheat. With the increase of soil depth, the soil water content and the salt content showed an increasing trend. The greater the soil salt content is, the higher the averaged soil water content is. Compared with the soil salt content before sowing, the salt content of each treatment in 0 to 40 cm soil layer decreased at harvest time, indicating a desalination process during the growth period. Spring wheat treatments with initial soil salt contents of 0.15%, 0.80% and 1.10% had the highest leaf water use efficiency and a relatively high net photosynthetic rate.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 157-164 [Abstract] ( 1100 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1568KB] ( 630 )
165 Effect of autumn mulching tillage on growth and water use efficiency of potato
HOU Xianqing, TANG Jing, YU Longlong, ZHAO Fengping, WANG Quanwang, HU Enjuan, WEI Kerun
Taking conventional tillage with no mulch as control, a field experiment was carried out by means of no-tillage and subsoiling combined with mulch after the autumn crop harvest on soil water status on the growth, yield and water use efficiency(WUE)of potato. The soil water conservation effect of different mulching tillage patterns was investigated in winter and spring fallow stages. The results show that, the storage capacity of soil at 0-200 cm deep soil was obviously increased with the mulching tillage treatments in the fallow stages. The storage capacity of soil at 0-200 cm depths of no-tillage with mulch, subsoiling with mulch, and conventional tillage with mulch was increased by 7.6%, 9.3% and 8.0%, respectively compared with the control. The storage capacity of soil at 0-60 cm soil layers during the early growth period of potato was greatly improved by different tillage measures combined with film mulch. Those combined with straw mulch have the best water conservation at 0-200 cm soil layers during its later growth period. The mulch with different tillage treatments significantly accelerated the growth in the early stage of potato, and the effect of the straw mulch with different tillage treatments on its growth in the later growth period was most obvious. The potato yield and WUE with the straw mulch with no-tillage,subsoiling and conventional tillage treatments were the highest, and the yield of potato significantly increased by 51.2%, 42.8% and 35.3%, respectively and WUE increased by 50.0%, 42.3% and 32.3%, respectively compared with the control. Obviousy, the straw mulch with different tillage treatments can play an important role in water and soil conservation, rasing potato yield and water use efficiency.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 165-172 [Abstract] ( 1142 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1427KB] ( 736 )
173 Estimation of micro-irrigation water application uniformity based on sample emitter flow variation
JU Xueliang,, WU Pute,, ZHU Delan, ZHANG Lin,
The field estimation of water application uniformity is the major way to assess the hydraulic design, operation and management and the equipment quality of the micro-irrigation system. The traditional emitter flow variation using the maximum, minimum and average emitter discharge was only used as the hydraulic design uniformity criterion, which could not be used to evaluate the field water application of micro-irrigation systems. The sample emitter flow variation was defined to evaluate the field water application uniformity. The relationships between the sample emitter flow variation and the other traditional indexes of water application uniformity were developed based on the assumption that the emitter flow of the field micro-irrigation systems obeys the normal distribution. The related formulations of sample errors were derived. The sample size and grouping number were also proposed. The criteria of sample emitter flow variation under different sample grouping number were proposed by comparison with those of the ASABE and GB. The estimation procedure of sample emitter flow variation was then proposed to assess the field water application uniformity. The application case indicated that the new method is easily adaptable and reliable for estimating the field water application uniformity.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 173-178 [Abstract] ( 895 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1338KB] ( 765 )
179 Running speed and pressure head loss of the light and small sprinkler irrigation system
CAO Hua,, GUO Fengtai, FAN Yongshen, DUAN Fuyi, HAN Qibiao, JIA Yanhui, CHEN Zhen
In order to study the reasonable value of the light and small sprinkler irrigation system′s running speed under the low-pressure sprinkler irrigation, and the relation between the working pressure and the pressure head loss of sprinkler irrigation system, the light and small sprinkler irrigation system was taken as the research object, and through the indoor sprinkler irrigation test, the relation between the system′s running speed and irrigation quota under a certain working pressure and flow rate was studied, in addition the local head loss and the frictional head loss of the system were analyzed. The results show that irrigation quota has a certain relationship with the running speed and working pressure of the light and small sprinkler irrigation system, thus the corresponding running speed may be modulated by determining the irrigation quota. The outlet pressure at the sprayer of the spraying car can increase with the increase of the single sprinkler pressure of the reel truck in the light and small sprinkler irrigation system. However, the increase rate of the outlet pressure will decrease when the single sprinkler pressure increases to a certain extent. Therefore, within the normal operating range of the system, its inlet pressure can be decreased to an appropriate range so as to reduce the pressure head loss of the system, save energy and reduce the operating cost of the system. As the light and small sprinkler irrigation system has a wide development prospect in China, this research will be of great significance in improving the performance of the light and small sprinkler irrigation system in China and provide a reference for the development of the light and small sprinkler irrigation system in China.
2016 Vol. 34 (2): 179-184 [Abstract] ( 983 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3056KB] ( 787 )
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