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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2015 Vol.33 Issue.12
Published 2015-12-25

1013 Wear characteristics of flow parts of centrifugal dredge pump
PENG Guangjie, WANG Zhengwei, FU Shuoshuo
The relationship between the wear rates on the surfaces of the impeller as well as volute and the sediment concentration was investigated using the distribution of the wear rates. An Eulerian-Lagrangian computational fluid dynamics(CFD)procedure was used to simulate steady liquid-solid two-phase flow for various pump operating conditions. The FINNIE model was used to predict the abrasion of the surface of impeller and volute. It was found that the relative value of wear rate of impeller and casing surface increased with the increase of sediment concentration; it was larger at the low flow rate of the pump, while the value was lower in the high efficiency condition of the pump. The relative value for the casing surface is larger than that for the impeller surface. The relative value for flow parts is low in the high efficiency area of the pump.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1013-1018 [Abstract] ( 1034 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 3139KB] ( 935 )
1019 Calculation method and experimental verification for axial thrust on centrifugal pump
LIU Zailun,, ZENG Jilai, SHAO Ancan, WU Xinrui
The accurate calculation of liquid pressure in the balance chamber is the key technology for axial thrust calculation of the impeller which has balance holes and double wear-rings on the centrifugal pump. The correction coefficient was cited, which is liquid pressure loss in the pump side chamber. The calculation of liquid pressure difference between the inlet of pump side chamber and rear wear-ring was resolved when there was liquid leaking in the side chamber. The IS80-50-315 type centrifugal pump whose speed had been reduced was taken as the research object. Specific area was changed by altering both the balance holes diameter and the rear wear-ring clearance. Then the characteristics of the mathematic model of liquid pressure in the balance chamber and axial thrust were researched under design conditions. The results show that the characteristic curves of the mathematic model for liquid pressure of the balance chamber can solve the key problem of the calculation of liquid pressure difference in the balance chamber under design conditions. The joint regulation by the two sluice valves, balance holes and rear wear-ring affects the axial thrust caused by liquid pressure difference in the area of ba-lance chamber. From the point of view of controlling axial thrust, the optimum matching relationship between the balance holes diameter and rear wear-ring clearance could be obtained according to the characteristic curve of axial thrust. The reliability of the mathematic model was verified by two test cases.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1019-1025 [Abstract] ( 1023 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1529KB] ( 1293 )
1026 Structural dynamic stress analysis of submersible axial pump
ZHANG Lin, SHI Weidong, ZHANG Desheng, ZHANG Junjie, GUO Yanlei
The rotor component of submersible axial flow pump was calculated under multiple conditions using CFX and Workbench software to analyze the stress and strain distribution by the action of fluid force,centrifugal force and gravity. Moreover, the possibility of failure caused by large deformation and insufficient strength was pointed out. The results showed that the radial force was the minimum under the standard condition. The direction of axial force in the hub was opposite to that in the impeller. The axial force was increased with the flow rate increasing. The hub could balance the axial force well under the large flow condition. The radial deformation was extremely smaller than the circumferential deformation which was the main deformation in the impeller. This may mean that the torque plays a major role in the total deformation. The pressure on the suction surface was significantly lower than that on the pressure surface.Near the inlet side of the hub appeared the high stress area,in which would emerge stress concentration. The main stress was reduced with the flow increasing. The static structural analysis and strength assessment of the axial pump could not only reduce the incidence of accidents, but also provide a powerful reference for axial flow hydraulic design optimization.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1026-1032 [Abstract] ( 925 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 2268KB] ( 879 )
1033 Effects of blade thickness on performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump
ZHAO Weiguo,, LIU Ming, LIU Yi, SHENG Jianping, SONG Qice
In order to research the effects of blade thickness on the performance of a low-specific-speed centrifugal pump, a centrifugal pump with a specific speed of 48 was selected as a study object. With other geometric parameters fixed, five kinds of impellers with different blade thickness of a centrifugal pump were constructed. Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm, numerical simulation was performed by commercial software Fluent under six different operation conditions. The relationship between the blade thickness and the hydraulic performance was analyzed from the external characteristics and internal flow. The results have shown that when the blade thickness increases in a certain range, the best efficiency point of the pump moves to the small flow direction and the top efficiency increases slightly. Additionally, the internal turbulence energy loss increases gradually under the design condition. Under the prerequisite of having meet the blade structural strength, selecting appropriate blade thickness could ensure the better hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1033-1037 [Abstract] ( 1303 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 2311KB] ( 1082 )
1038 Analysis of fluctuation characteristics at runner area of pump turbine
LI Rennian, TAN Haiyan, LI Qifei, NIE Guokui, LIU Chao
In order to reveal the pressure fluctuation characteristics at the runner area of the pump turbine, pump turbine models were selected as the study object. Based on the Realizable k-ε turbulence model, three-dimensional unsteady numerical simulations were conducted and the pressure fluctuation characteristics of the runner were analyzed with part load under different conditions. The results show that when units with 30% load, the pressure fluctuation at the runner area becomes more severe with the head increasing. The pressure fluctuation characteristics at the upper canopy of the runner present periodic changes, and on the interface of runner outlet axis and the draft tube outlet the pressure fluctuation is in disorder in one cycle. The pressure fluctuation at the upper canopy of the runner increases from the inlet to the outlet, and its main frequency is the blade rotating passing frequency. The pressure fluctuation at the axis of the runner outlet is of low frequency and the amplitude decreases along the negative Z axis. The main frequency of pressure fluctuation on the interface of the runner and the draft tube decreases gradually with the head increasing, but the amplitude change is opposite.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1038-1043 [Abstract] ( 929 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1671KB] ( 913 )
1044 Application of particle swarm with linearly decreasing weight optimized projection pursuit model
DONG Lili, YU Miao, XU Shuqin
To overcome the lower local search ability and the problem of premature convergence in particle swarm optimization, and efficiently control the global and local search of particle swarm optimization, particle swarm optimization with linearly decreasing weight was proposed. It started from random solutions, which followed the current search for the optimal value to find the global optimum, increased the local search ability of the algorithm. By optimizing the algorithm with the projection pursuit model, particle swarm with linearly decreasing weight optimized projection pursuit model was established. The model was applied to optimize evaluation of dam slope protection, 9 indicators reselected as evaluation factors;as a result, an area-suitable optimization model of dam slope protection was proposed. The results show that using particle swarm with linearly decreasing weight optimized projection pursuit model can effectively find the best projection direction, and calculate projection values. According to the size of the projection index value the program can be optimized. It is feasible for comprehensive evaluation of dam slope protection mode. The advantage of this algorithm is its ease of implementation, high accuracy, fast convergence, and its superiority is demonstrated in solving practical problems, therefore it can be widely used in the field of engineering optimization.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1044-1048 [Abstract] ( 971 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1345KB] ( 974 )
1049 An approximate analytical method of gas film pressure in non-parallel gap of spiral groove dry gas seal
SONG Pengyun, LI Ying, MA Ailin
To study the distribution of gas film pressure of deformed spiral groove dry gas seal, an approximate analytical method of the gas film pressure in the non-parallel gap is presented, which stems from the narrow groove theory improved by MUIJDERMAN. An example is presented, and compared with the situation of the parallel gap. The results show that there will be a radius of R, where the pressure of the gas film is the same before and after the deformation. When the gap is divergent(A-shaped), the film pressure decreases in the area of r smaller than R, and the film pressure increases in the area of r greater than R. With θ increasing, the minimum gas film thickness(hmin)decreases, and leakage(m)increases. When the gap is convergent(V-shaped), the film pressure increases in the area of r smaller than R, and decreases in the area of r greater than R. With θ increasing,the minimum gas film thickness(hmin)and leakage(m)decrease first and then increases.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1049-1055 [Abstract] ( 1014 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1560KB] ( 918 )
1056 Partial port throttle performance based on standard orthogonal polynomial fitting
YUAN Shihao
Based on U throttle port structural parameters orthogonal factors: throttle length L, throttle depth H and throttle radius R, throttle performance indicators of U throttle port which include 16 data sets are calculated. Orthogonal polynomial fitting method is applied to deal with throttle performance data sets; as a result, the quantification fitting formula of throttle performance which includes throttle structural parameters is created. Respectively, with analytic formulas and fitting formulas, the analytic values and fitting values of throttle performance evaluation indicators are calculated. By comparing analytic va-lues with fitting values, it is found that the difference between them is almost less than 1%.The compa-rison result shows that the fitting formula can be used to analyze the throttle performance of U throttle port; also applying the fitting formula, the relative influence of different structural parameters can be clearly understood. Furthermore, with the fitting formula, optimized throttle port is obtained. By comparing throttle performance evaluation indicators between optimized throttle port and original throttle port, it is found that the throttle performance of optimized throttle port is improved indeed. As the improvement of throttle performance is hard to be observed directly, the indirect proof can be obtained with flux expe-riments. From the results of flux experiments, the theoretical analysis results are indirectly explained.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1056-1061 [Abstract] ( 2170 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1490KB] ( 908 )
1062 Effects of water deficit at different fruit growth stages on flavor quality of tomato
YANG Qi, HU Tiantian, LIU Tingting, LIU Jie, FENG Puyu
Pot tomato plants were subjected to different degrees of water supply amount(full irrigation as W, 2/3W as medium water deficit, 1/3W as severe water deficit)at 2 growth stages(fruit expanding stage and fruit maturation stage). Effects of water deficit degree at the 2 growth stages and their interaction on flavor quality of tomato(soluble solid,soluble sugar, titratable acid and sugar/acid ratio)were analyzed. Results showed that the deficit degree at the fruit expanding stage and the maturation stage and the interaction of the two factors significantly influenced soluble sugar, titratable acid, sugar/acid ratio, soluble solid of tomato, but the influence of water deficit at the fruit expanding stage on soluble sugar was insignificant. As medium water deficit at the maturation stage, medium water de-ficit at the expanding stage dramatically increased titratable acid and soluble solid amount by 57.8% and 29.4% respectively and decreased the sugar/acid ratio by 46.6%, compared with full irrigation. As severe water deficit at the expanding stage, severe water deficit at the fruit maturation stage significantly reduced soluble sugar, soluble solid amount and sugar/acid ratio in the proportion of 49.3%, 33.9% and 75.0% respectively; whereas titratrble acid rose in the proportion of 129.7%, compared with full irrigation. Soluble sugar, soluble solid and sugar/acid ratio of tomato with severe water deficit in the whole growth period significantly declined by 16.5%, 16.0% and 36.5% respectively, compared with full irrigation treatment. These results indicated that the amount of supplied water at the fruit expanding and maturation stages both made significant contribution to the flavor quality of tomato. And the effects of water deficit at a single stage on fruit flavor quality had a positive correlation with the water supply amount of another one. Moreover, moderate water deficit at the two stages significantly improved flavor quality of tomato. Severe water deficit during the whole fruit growth period had a negative influence on the improvement of flavor quality of tomato but acquired higher sourness.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1062-1068 [Abstract] ( 1139 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1433KB] ( 981 )
1069 Effects of water-fertilizer coupling on field cotton growth and yield under fertigation in Xinjiang
Li Zhijun,,, Wang Haidong,,, Zhang Fucang,,, Wu Lifeng,,, Wang Zhao,,, Zhou Jianwei
A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and fertilizer couling on field cotton growth and yield under fertigation in Xinjiang. The experiment designed three irrigation water levels and five NPK fertilizer application levels. Results showed that the irrigation water had a significant effect on plant height, effective bolls, 100-bolls weight, seed cotton yield, water use efficiency(WUE)and irrigation water use efficiency(IWUE). It had an extremely significant effect on the leaf area index, which increased as the irrigation water increased. Fertilization had an extremely significant effect on the plant height, leaf area index, effective bolls, 100-bolls weight and seed cotton yield. The effect of the coupling of water and fertilization on effective bolls, 100-bolls weight and seed cotton yield reached an extremely significant level. There was an adverse effect of overfertilization on crop growth. The highest nutrient use efficiency was obtained with the irrigation water 60% ETc and fertilizer rate 300 kg/hm2∶120 kg/hm2∶60 kg/hm2(ωNωP2O5ωK2O), while the irrigation water 100% ETc and fertilizer rate 150 kg/hm2∶60 kg/hm2∶30 kg/hm2(ωNωP2O5ωK2O)received the highest nutrient recovery rate. The irrigation water 100% ETc and fertilizer rate 300 kg/hm2∶120 kg/hm2∶60 kg/hm2(ωNωP2O5ωK2O)were the best fertigation strategy for cotton in Xinjiang.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1069-1077 [Abstract] ( 1670 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1538KB] ( 961 )
1078 Spatial variation regulations of water quality for centralized drinking water source in Wuwei City
ZHANG Yuezhen, , DONG Pingguo, , LI YanYong, WANG Tianren
Based on the measured data of the water quality of 16 monitoring sections in the surface-ground water source in 2013, the hierarchical clustering R-typed factor analysis method and Ward method were used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity laws of the water environment in the centralized drinking water source in the plain terrain of Wuwei City. The results showed that the contamination in the drinking water source in the plain terrain of Wuwei City tends to transfer from north to south. The water pollution of 16 monitoring sections in the surface-ground water source in May 2013 tends to transfer from north(Bb5)to middle(Aa6,Aa7). The water pollution in August 2013 tends to transfer from middle(Bb3,Aa7)to south(Ba5,Aa5). The main pollutants include:NO3-N,permanganate index,chloride,volatile penols,total coliform group,sulphide,Se,total hardness. These data could provide the basis for both the division of the functional district and the comprehensive control of the water environment in this area.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1078-1084 [Abstract] ( 1137 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 3369KB] ( 828 )
1085 Soil evaporation for summer maize under no-tillage with straw mulching
ZHAO Xiujin, ZHANG Zhitao, ZHANG Zhaolu, MA Yanfei, WU Zhongdong
To improve the utilization efficiency of rainfall in North China, micro-lysimeters(MLS)were selected to measure soil evaporation(E)of summer maize with and without straw mulching and combined with soil moisture to estimate evapotranspiration(ET).The seasonal dynamics of E over the field and the ratio of E to ET were studied. The results showed that soil evaporation of summer maize with straw mulching was reduced by an average of 39.5% compared with CK, and there was significant difference. The change trend of accumulatve evaporation capacity and time was in line with the power function model, and the fitting correlation coefficient reached 0.99. Straw mulched and no mulch treatment E/ET were about 33.5% and 41%. The correlation coefficients of evapotranspiration of straw mulched and no mulch treatments under the condition of evaporation and leaf area index were respectively 0.70 and 0.85. The total rainfall in North China and the coverage of basic water consumption were about the same, but the control appeared stage water shortage. The study reflects the advantage of no-tillage with mulching agricultural water conservation technique, and offers a theoretical basis for water-saving agriculture.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1085-1090 [Abstract] ( 1097 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1455KB] ( 913 )
1091 High voltage motor stator winding insulation vulnerabilities of effective positioning
GONG Weiming, GONG Jingya , ZHANG Yu
For partial discharge detection method(no matter online or off-line), it can only be used to determine the discharge capacity of a phase stator winding insulation, which can be used to detect the discharge position and discharge intensity. According to the situation of the field, reduce the noise, electromagnetic interference and other interference sources to the motor stator winding test, summed up the high voltage motor stator winding sound power of the test of the normal situation, internal discharge, etc.. A large number of field tests were carried out to establish the discharge points of different types and different discharge levels, and to carry out the accuracy of the spectrum information and verify the location. The combined detection of the sound and the pulse current is used in combination with the pulse current detection, and the different discharge points of the stator winding of high voltage motor are judged by comparing the signal spectrum and the pulse current detection. The insulation condition and performance of the main motor windings of the main motor of the Jiangdu Railway Station are provided by the positioning test of the weak point of the stator winding insulation of high voltage motor.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1091-1096 [Abstract] ( 1060 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 1925KB] ( 1042 )
1097 Simulation of eddy current sensor based on COMSOL finite element method
XU Lin, WANG Heng, HUANG Zhen, LI Boquan, XIAO Yikai, SHENG Jiaduan
To study the effects of structural parameters of probe coil in eddy current sensor on the performance detection, based on electromagnetic field theory, the finite element analysis was employed, with the help of finite element simulation software COMSOL to establish the detection model of eddy current sensor. By means of simulation, the electromagnetic characteristics of eddy current sensor probe and probe coil, and such structural parameters affecting its performance as inner radius, outer radius, thickness were studied. The results show that the impedance of eddy current sensor probe coil rises with the increase of the coil inner radius and outer radius, and the decrease of thickness. The bigger the inner radius, the outer radius and the thinner the thickness are, the higher the sensitivity of the eddy current sensor is, and the more obvious the impact of its thickness on the sensitivity of the sensor is. The findings offer a certain reference value for optimizing design of eddy current sensor used to defect detection of steel gate.
2015 Vol. 33 (12): 1097-1104 [Abstract] ( 2109 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF 3060KB] ( 1314 )
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