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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2010 Vol.28 Issue.5
Published 2010-09-30

article
Article
369 Multi-object optimum design for hydraulic turbine guide vane based on NSGA-Ⅱ algorithm
Luo Xingqi, Guo Pengcheng, Zhu Guojun, Ding Kuang
 The multi-object optimization method for hydraulic machinery blades was proposed based on NSGA-Ⅱ algorithm. In the method, shape parameters of the blades were used as optimization variables, energy and cavitation performances were used as objective functions, and the multi-object optimization for the guide vane blade surface in a water power plant was carried out. The obtained results showed that the total pressure loss reduced by 26.97%, and the minimal pressure in guide vane increased by 34.176%. For the optimized guide vanes, the loss was reduced, and the cavitation performance was improved. It is concluded  that the  multi-object optimization method presented can control the blade profiles by using fewer  variables and is available for both effectively analyzing the influence of every design variable on objective function and  reducing the scale of the optimization question. So it is a valid optimization design tool for hydraulic machinery blades.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 369-373 [Abstract] ( 2435 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 483KB] ( 1227 )
374 Numerical simulation of internal flow field in axial flow pump with different blade tip clearance sizes
Shi Weidong, Zhang Hua, Chen Bin, Zhang Desheng, Zhang Lei
The axial pump impellers with blade tip clearances of 0.15,0.50,1.00,2.00 mm were simulated in the multi-condition by CFD software based on standard k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm, using structured grid technology. The influence of different tip clearances on the performance of the axial pump and the meridional velocity, and circulation were discussed. The formation of leakage flow and leakage vortex was investigated with different tip clearance sizes.When the blade tip clearance is more than 0.50 mm, numerical results show that the decline trend of the pump performance significantly increases, the axial velocity near the hub and blade tip clearance decreases, and the circulation increases . The larger of blade tip clearance, the greater impact of the leakage flow on axial velocity and circulation. By numerical simulation, leakage flow and leakage vortex under different blade tip clearances are captured, and the analysis come to the conclusion that the tip clearance leakage vortex is formed by leakage flow entraining with mainstream and its trace is closely related to the tip clearance size.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 374-377 [Abstract] ( 2327 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 444KB] ( 885 )
378 Numerical calculation of axial flow  pump model with multi-blade stagger angles
Chen Hongxun, Zhu Bing, Li Suibo
Based on the earlier numerical calculation about an axial flow pump model at 0° installation angle, the same axial flow pump model was chosen and simulated at other various angles, and the performance  was analyzed under  steady and unsteady operating conditions. In the ANSYS CFX software, the standard   k-ε turbulence model and scalable wall function were used with suitable mesh number and distribution. The difference between numerical simulation and experiment was compared and analyzed. Under the standard use of CFD tools, the accuracy and error characteristic of numerical simulation were analyzed in order to guide CFD technique to engineering application. When comparing with the experiment value, it is concluded that the predicted water head value by unsteady simulation is slightly higher, while that by steady simulation is lower. Generally speaking, the unsteady simulation accuracy is superior to the steady one, and the water head error can be controlled within 5%. The efficiency error for both methods can be controlled within 7%, and there is a relative fixed amplitude deviation for unsteady simulation, which can be used to guide the error correction of efficiency prediction. According to the unsteady calculation results, the streamline distribution of impeller and guider span surfaces, the blade span section line pressure distribution, and the variation of hydraulic loss with blade stagger angles and flow rate for different parts are analyzed. Under small flow rate condition, there exits a vortex jam phenomenon near the hub. Within the range of simulation operation conditions, the hydraulic losses for both guider part and outlet part will firstly decrease and then increase with the flow rate increasing.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 378-383 [Abstract] ( 2635 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 645KB] ( 1067 )
384 Parametric modeling and optimization design of centrifugal pump impeller based on genetic algorithm
Guo Tao, Li Guojun, Tian Hui, Sun Xiuling
An automatic optimization method for centrifugal impeller shapes was established with FORTRAN program, in which the impeller meridian plane and blade profile were parameterized according to the theory of stream surface and coordinate transformation, genetic algorithm was improved via adaptation strategy to increase algorithm efficiency. CFD software NUMECA was used to simulate the 3D steady internal flow in impellers, diffusers, and other main hydraulic components of pumps to predict the hydraulic performance. Taking the pump performance parameters of efficiency and head as the optimization multi-objectives, the impeller structures of Dn1000 oil submerged pump and IS80-65-125 clean water pump were optimized. The performance of the optimized pumps is improved obviously. Under the design condition, the two pumps′head increases by 0.21 m and 1.70 m, and the efficiency increases by 1.9% and 2.3%, respectively.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 384-388 [Abstract] ( 2082 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 420KB] ( 1839 )
389 Experiment on instantaneous characteristics in centrifugal pump during startup period
Li Zhifeng, Wu Dazhuan, Wang Leqin, Dai Weiping, Chen Fengqiu
 To further research instantaneous characteristics in centrifugal pump during startup period, a centrifugal pump instantaneous performance test system was established. Experiments on the startup process of a centrifugal pump with ball valve fully opened, semi-opened and fully closed were carried out, respectively.  At the same time of testing the instantaneous explicit performances, 2D instantaneous flow field on the pump test section were captured with particle image velocimetry(PIV) technique. The reasons causing test error and relationships between external characteristics and internal flow evolutions were discussed. The results show that the internal flow of the centrifugal pump appears intense instantaneous characteristics during startup period. For startup with valve fully opened, both the instantaneous head and power increase rapidly with rotational speed increasing, and the instantaneous flow rate shows cubic trait characteristic. For startup with valve fully closed, the maximum power shock reaches 1.5 times of the steady state. The internal instantaneous flow indicates the shock is caused by fluid mixing and mutually transfer of vortex energy. The bubble and low shooting frequency are the main reasons for the PIV test errors.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 389-393 [Abstract] ( 1863 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 414KB] ( 1427 )
394 CFD numerical simulation of whole flow field for SXB multi-stage fire pump
Liu Jianrui, Zhang Lisheng, Xiang Hongjie, Liu Liangliang
基于Reynolds时均N-S方程,采用标准k-ε湍流模型,压力速度耦合使用SIMPLEC计算,对SXB型消防用多级泵进行三维定常全流场湍流数值模拟,得到该泵的速度矢量图、静压图、湍动能分布图等,并对其内部流动规律进行定性分析.分析结果表明首级叶轮-导叶、次级叶轮-蜗壳中间轴向截面的速度场分布均匀,导叶与蜗壳起到很好的整流作用;首级叶轮-导叶、次级叶轮-蜗壳中间轴向截面的压力场分布均匀,叶片上压力分布非常规则,仅在首级叶轮与导叶的间隙区存在具有对称性的局部高压区;首级叶轮-导叶区湍动能分布较为规则,而次级叶轮-蜗壳区域的湍动能在沿叶轮旋转方向靠近隔舌的区域分布紊乱,在远离隔舌区湍动能较小,隔舌区湍流损失大.模拟结果显示出了泵内能量损失严重的区域,可为改进泵设计提供参考.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 394-397 [Abstract] ( 1683 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 377KB] ( 1144 )
398 Numerical simulation and experiment of influence of hem on performance of vortex pump
Zhu Rongsheng, Su Baowen, Wang Xiuli, Yin Yonggang
 In order to improve the head and efficiency of vortex pumps, numerical simulation and experimental research of influence of hems on performance of a vortex pump was carried out. Something was got by contrasting three kinds of blades with different sizes hems on performance of the pump. The model was designed by Pro/E considering impeller and volute as a whole and with unstructured grid generation technique. The numerical results by contrasting the calculated values of three different hems show that the internal flow includes longitudinal and transverse vortices,and hems can improve the flow patterns inside the pump and restrict the transformation of radial flow to axial one. The influence of hems on vortex pump′s performance was discussed. The experimental results show that the head increases by 3.64 m and the efficiency increases by 7.0%. The research shows that hem can reduce the loss of hydraulic and improve head and efficiency.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 398-401 [Abstract] ( 1594 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 360KB] ( 792 )
402 Optimization method for offset splitting blades based on advanced control flow theory
Jia Ruixuan, Xu Hong
To overcome the shortcomings of fully depending on experience in the past while choosing the offset position and offset angle of splitting blades in centrifugal pump compound impellers, the advanced controlflow  theory was used to optimize splitting blades design. First of all, on the basis of the fluid element stress conditions in flow passage of centrifugal backward sweep impellers, the equilibrium of force perpendicular to the streamline was established. Subsequently, along normal orientation to the streamline, the relevant formula between pressure gradient and relative velocity gradient was deduced from relatively movement Bernoulli equation. Furthermore, the relation between pressure gradient normal to the streamline and geometry structure was obtained. Then the prime offset location was identified by analyzing several correlative formulas. At the same time, splitting blade inlet was offsetted moderately to suction side to realize the after loading characteristic. The test results show that the analysis conclusions match the experimental data very well and are proved to be reasonable.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 402-406 [Abstract] ( 1644 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 380KB] ( 1069 )
407 Theory and experiment on non-overload characteristics for centrifugal pump with splitters
Zhang Jinfeng, Shen Yanning, Yuan Shouqi, Lu Weigang, Yuan Jianping
 By combining the former research results about the splitters and the non-overload theory in centrifugal pumps, and based on the principle theory of pumps, the theoretical conditions to achieve the property of non-overload  in centrifugal pump with splitters was analyzed, and formulas to estimate the maximum shaft power and its position were derived. Based on the requirements of both high efficiency and non-overload, blade outlet angleβ2, blade outlet width b2, volute throat area Ft and the inlet diameter  of splitters Di were chosen with three levels to design a normal L9(3*4)orthogonal test scheme. By analyzing the test results, the important order of the four geometric parameters on the performance of centrifugal pumps with splitters was obtained as b2,β2,Ft,Di, and the estimating formulas were validated.  Meanwhile, the optimized design scheme was determined, and corresponding test was done also.  It demonstrates that the experiment purpose was reached, the design method to combine the splitters and non-overload theory is reasonable, which can get the property of both high efficiency and non-overload. 
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 407-411 [Abstract] ( 2114 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 454KB] ( 1003 )
412 Slide bearing wear monitoring on magnetic drive pump
Zeng Pei, Ye Zizhao, Li Yongliang, Kong Fanyu
When the magnetic drive pump slide bearing wear exceeds its limit, the rotating assembly will rub and eventually breach the containment shell, and will cause serious consequence. Therefore, research of a slide bearing wear monitoring method is necessary. Due to complex structure and confined space, such monitoring is however very challenging. A simple, low cost magnetic drive pump slide bearing  wear sensor was proposed, which was made only of one piece of wire. According to the physical parameters of the pump and the sensor, the feature curve and the output function of the sensor was established by theoretical analysis and experimental correction. Two sets of sliding bearings were adopted on magnetic drive pump for the feasibility experiment with the sensors: one bearing is normal without eccentricity, the other is of eccentricity. The results show that the error between the measured value and the actual value meets the monitoring requirement. So the detection system built by the sensor can conduct magnetic drive pump slide bearing wear monitoring, and has practical value on improving reliability of magnetic drive pump product.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 412-416 [Abstract] ( 3472 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 440KB] ( 1002 )
417 Hydraulic performance optimization of bidirectional tidal power turbine
Wang Zhengwei, Yang Xiaosheng, Xiao Yexiang
According to the recorded operation data in Jiangxia experimental tidal power station, the relation between the tidal level and the reservoir area water head was analyzed, and the change pattern of the tidal level with the operating parameters was then concluded. The hydraulic characteristics of the bidirectional bulb turbine under multiple operating conditions were investigated by 3D numerical simulation.  Based on this, optimization design of a new bidirectional bulb turbine with the fixed flow passage size, including parameters (diameter ratio of runner to bulb, guide vane angle and guide vane/runner blade shape) redesign, was conducted. Key achievement of model units after model acceptance test was also available. The new type unit in Jiangxia tidal power station, unit 6#, in which the research outcome has been directly utilized, achieved stable operating for both forward and reversed generation,pumping and draw off. Moreover, comparing with other units equipped, there is an over 6% efficiency increase for both forward and reversed generation. Besides, turbine general performance has also been improved.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 417-421 [Abstract] ( 2047 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 432KB] ( 1021 )
422 Numerical simulation of cylinder orientation through a rotating straight expansion duct
Zhang Qihua, Li Yuexian, Lin Jianzhong
To obtain the evolutions of cylinder trajectory and orientation,the cylinder suspension flowing through a rotating straight expansion duct was simulated numerically.The Laplace equation was used to generate the numerical grids of the duct,and the FVM was used to solve the flow field.Then the Runge-Kutta method was adopted to integrate the Jeffery equation along the trajectory to obtain the cylinder orientation.The probability distribution function was solved to get the steady cylinder orientation distribution.The results show that the fluid velocity at inlet and inlet position of cylinders located have significant effects, and rotation velocity of duct and initial cylinder orientation have insignificant effects on the orientation distribution of cylinders.The orientation distribution of cylinders is not sensitive to the variation of cylinder aspect ratio when the aspect ratio is larger than 5.For the cylinders with aspect ratio less than 5, the smaller the aspect ratio, the faster cylinders rotate, and more frequently cylinders swing around the flow direction. Cylinders generally orient along the flow direction, which is more obvious in the region near the wall. The conclusion is helpful to the investigation on the pumping process of suspension containing cylinders.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 422-427 [Abstract] ( 1842 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 428KB] ( 1074 )
428 Improvement on genetic algorithms and its application in fluid machinery
Tao Haikun, Tan Lei, Cao Shuliang
GA(genetic algorithms) was overall improved: roulette wheel selection based on sorting, excellent  selection strategy was used in selection operator, heuristic crossover was used in crossover operator,adaptive nonunformity variation was used in variation operation, also, cross century elite choosing strategy and niche strategy were introduced. Traditional GA is easy to generate premature phenomena and get the local optimal solution. Improved-GA which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional GA speeds up the convergence rate. The population size selected by improved-GA is small, so as to reduce the calculation work. The relationship of design parameters and outlet velocity uniformity of bell-like inlet passage was researched using improved-GA and CFD. The results indicate that the improved-GA can successfully apply to multi-parameter optimization design of bell like inlet passage. The hydraulic performance of bell-like inlet passage is greatly improved. Objective function values of two parameters and five parameters are 96.817% and 97.285%, respectively. This study provides references for engineering applications.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 428-433 [Abstract] ( 1909 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 465KB] ( 1035 )
434 Adaptability research of optimal operation mode with variable frequency drives for pumping stations in  China′s Eastern RouteProject of S-to-N Water Diversion
Cheng Jilin, Zhang Rentian, Deng Dongsheng, Gong Yi, Feng Xusong
Taking the No.4 Jiangdu Pumping Station in China′s Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project as a study case, mathematics models and solution methods were systematically proposed for optimal operation  of single pump unit within a pumping station through blade adjusting regulation and variable speed regulation  with variable frequency drives. Following results were achieved: (a) Better benefits can be obtained by optimization of blade adjusting operation compared with optimal variable speed operation by means of variable frequency drive under the conditions of the daily average pumping heads yearly varies from 3.8 m to 7.8 m and daily mean tidal range 1.2 m affected by Yangtze River tide no matter whether the peak valley electricity price is considered. (b)The optimal variable speed operation by means of variable frequency drive is better than optimization of blade adjusting operation only while the daily average pumping head is below 5.0 m and the pump is not with the total water amount. (c)While comparing with that of fixed blade angle and constant speed, the benefits brought about by optimization of variable speed operation cannot compensate the energy consumption of variable frequency drive with the total water amount. Meanwhile, according to the mechanism of pump system, the argument is proved that better benefits of large scale pumping station can be obtained by optimization of variable speed operation by means of variable frequency drive only while the pumping heads in a water transfer process has a large variation, which could provide theoretical basis for the renovation and optimal operation of large scale pumping station in Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 434-438 [Abstract] ( 1823 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 429KB] ( 1305 )
439 DPSA method based optimal operation of single pump unit for Jiangdu No.4 Pumping Station
Zhang Lihua, Cheng Jilin, Zhang Rentian, Qiu Jinxian, Gong Yi
A DP mathematical model combined optimal operation with adjustableblade and variable speed was presented.The peak valley electricity prices and suction level fluctuation affected by tidal levels  were taken in account in the model. The objective function was to take minimal electricity energy consumption cost of daily operation. The decision variables were the setting blade angle and rotational speed of pump unit in each time period and the constraint conditions were water volumes pumped in given times. The optimization method DPSA was applied to solve the optimal operation mode. One case was studied by comparing the state of combination optimal operation with the operation in constant blade angle and rotational speed of Jiangdu No.4 Pumping Station. The calculation results show that with the constraint  conditions of typical tidal process which are average tidal levels from December to February of next year, designed average pumping head of 7.8 m~3.8 m, and the operation load at 100%,80%,60% of fullload(the water volume when the pumps working with the blade angle of 0 degree and the speed of 150 r/min in a full day), the optimization effect of combination optimal operation with adjustable blade  and variable speed reaches 0.99%~35.00% compared with the operation in constant blade angle and rotational speed. Without considering the peak valley electricity prices, the number is 0.26%~17.23%, which gives a new way to the optimization of Eastern Route Project of South to North Water Diversion.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 439-443 [Abstract] ( 1758 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 361KB] ( 837 )
444 Numerical calculation of triangle circulation drip irrigation emitters based on orthogonal experiment
Wang Xinkun, Li Junhong, Li Yafei, Xu Wenbo
To overcome the condition that emitter structures of only one single status currently, a new type of triangle circulation drip irrigation emitter was constructed. Computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.3 was adopted to simulate the flow of emitters, and the experiments of emitter hydraulic performance were carried out with orthogonal design method, where the key parameters of triangle circulation channel were distinguished. The impact of key structural parameters on flow index and flow rate was analysed using range analysis and variance analysis. The results show that the channel width b is the most important factor affecting the flow index x. The role of channel depth D, inlet size a and unit height h on x can be ignored. The flow rate is seriously influenced by the channel depth D, channel width b, inlet size a and unit height h, impact is decreasing. According to the linear multivariable regression method, models of flow index and flow rate with structural parameters was established. The linear multivariable regressions provide a theoretical basis for the triangle circulation emitters structure design and quantitative analysis.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 444-448 [Abstract] ( 2086 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 354KB] ( 1221 )
449 Experiment on water migration of surge root irrigation in loess sloping fields
Wang Youke, Li Penghong, Ma Lihui , Zhao Yingna, Li Pengjun
In order to know the water migration of a new micro-irrigation technique of surge root irrigation,different water migrations of surge root irrigation were studied by cross sectional method under different hold diameters and depths in the wild loess sloping fields. The results show that under different hole diameters and depths, there are different influences on the horizontal diffusion radius, the upward infiltration distance and the downward infiltration depth of wetting front, and all of them have remarkable power rules with time; During 24 h after stopping surge root irrigation, the wetting front increased more than 47% relatively on horizontal and vertical diffusion, and the average moisture content of wetted volume  decreased 30% relatively; After 24 h the wetting front diffused less and the moisture content decreased less. Therefore the design of surge root irrigation system can be established on the characteristic  value of wetted volume on 24 h after stopping surge root irrigation, it will be proper when the hole depth is 30~40 cm and the hole diameter is of 6 cm. This research results can provide theory reference on application of the surge root irrigation technology.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 449-454 [Abstract] ( 2111 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 500KB] ( 762 )
455 Numerical simulation of frost heave of concrete lining channel by taking consideration of radiation
Wang Zhengzhong, Lu Qin, Guo Lixia
 Numerical simulation analysis of channel frost heaving dependeds on measured temperature and therefore can not directly forecast channel frost heaving and design. To avoid the default, considering effect of sunlight on frost heaving deformation and frost heaving pressure, based on frost heaving mechanics, frost heaving physics and theory of heat radiation,  dynamic numerical simulation of channel daily frost heaving process was conducted by using  ANSYS to load temperature. Distributions of channel temperature, stress and deformation fields were obtained. By comparison, the frost heaving rule with heat radiation consideration is consistent with that caused by measured sinusoidal temperature change, the soil temperature is higher than that gotten from sinusoidal temperature change method, especially at channel shady position, frost heaving deformation and frost heaving pressure are lower than that calculated by sinusoidal temperature change method.
2010 Vol. 28 (5): 455-460 [Abstract] ( 2869 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 578KB] ( 881 )
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