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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2010 Vol.28 Issue.2
Published 2010-03-30

article
Article
93 Cavitation and cavitation erosion of pump and turbine with silt laden water as working medium
Chang Jinshi
The experiment on cavitation and cavitation erosion of pump and turbine with silt laden water as working medium was carried out. The experimental results show that lots of gas nuclei hiding in the gaps of sand surfaces grow up and form into the bubbles when pressure decreases, and then separate from the sand surface, cavitation happens finally. When sandiness and water temperature are constant, the cavitation pressure characteristics of silt laden water depend on three important factors, the local altitude, sand mass concentration and sand radius. When the former two factors are constant, the incipient cavitation and critical cavitation pressure both increase with the decrease of sand radius. The gas nuclei number of silt laden water is far greater than that of the clean water. When cavitation occurs in the silt laden water, the jet flow strength in sand water caused by the bubbles collapse is greater than that in the clean water. The two reasons above cause the cavitation damage of sediment laden flow in water pump and turbine stronger than that of the clean water in the same device conditions. At present, the mistake that the vapor pressure of clean water at zero altitude is used to be of the cavitation pressure in the computation of the cavitating flow field and cavitation coefficient leads to serious inaccuracies of real results.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 93-97 [Abstract] ( 2133 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 404KB] ( 1221 )
98 Optimal design of low specific speed  mixed flow pump impeller
Jia Ruixuan, Xu Hong
To overcome the condition that there is short of work over rule of variation about radial parameters in allusion to traditional low specific speed mixed flow pump impeller design, a novel strategy using for reference of steam turbine axial flow impeller design experience is proposed. In the first instance, according to inner flow loss theory, the reason engendering secondary flow in impeller flow path passage section was clarified. Subsequently, a new method degrading secondary flow was discovered by advanced control flow theory. And then, radial parameters optimization design was achieved by NUMECA, a commercial CFD software on the condition of the vane parametric modeling. It can increase pump efficiency effectively. The calculation case shows that advanced control flow theory is an valid method to integrate inner flow analyzing and optimization design, and it can achieve impeller quickly and with high efficiency design.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 98-102 [Abstract] ( 1775 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 331KB] ( 2126 )
103 Complex impeller shape and performance comparisons of roto jet pump
Wang Chunlin, Shi Yating, Lü Yayun, Li Changjun, Ding Jian
Two shapes of complex impeller of roto jet pump were designed. CFD numerical simulation was performed in order to investigate the interior flow of the impellers,and obtain the distribution of pressure and relative velocity in the impeller passages. Suitable short blades installation can decrease the degree of diffusion, and the effect of split flow and diversion is very well. At last, through comparing the performance curves of the two model pumps,the performance was found to meet the designing requirement by using S shaped complex blades. When using two short blades, vortex appeared in the impeller passage, and backflow also appeared near one of the blades, which lead to hydraulic loss and lower efficiency. The performance of pump with one short blade is more superior.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 103-106 [Abstract] ( 1863 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 337KB] ( 926 )
107 Low head pumping system performances and affinity issues under variable speed operation based on CFD
Zhang Rentian, Yao Linbi, Zhu Honggeng, Zhang Lihua, Wei Jun
In order to adjust working conditions of variable speed operations with variable frequency drives applied in low head pumping stations in the South to North Water Diversion Project, the relationship between heads and discharge rates of pump and pumping system under different rotational speeds were analyzed with affinity law. It is found out that the relationship between heads and discharge rates of pump corresponds to the conventional affinity law under different speeds, but that of pump system does not. The flow fields in passages, especially those in discharge passages affected by the outflow of pump, don′t follow the kinetic similarity rules when the pumping system is operated under different rotational speeds. Errors produced when the conventional affinity law is applied to predict the low head pumping system performances. The flow fields distributions of a typical tubular pumping system under three different rotational speeds were analyzed by CFD technology, which shows that the velocity distributions are different or even in the reversed direction when the variation of rational speed reaches a certain degree. The relationship at different speeds does not correspond to the affinity laws and the conventional ones cannot be adopted.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 107-111 [Abstract] ( 1950 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 350KB] ( 1109 )
112 Development of hydraulic components of slurry pump based on Pro/E
Tang Xuelin, Bian Liyuan, Yi Cheng
The computer aided design software of hydraulic components of slurry pumps was developed based on Pro/E. Firstly, the theory of solid liquid two phase flows was applied to design hydraulic components of slurry pumps and improve the particle motion inside hydraulic parts, and all the geometric parameters were obtained considering the particle influence on hydraulic parts. Then based on VC++ 6.0 platform and Windows XP operating system, MFC framework was used to develop user interface, and geometric parameters of hydraulic parts were calculated. Finally, based on Pro/TOOLKIT of the Pro/E Wildfire’s version 2.0 which encapsulated a lot of API function interfaces, the computer aided design of slurry pumps was built into Pro/E main menu as slurry pump submenu item. The relevant submenus are developed to automatically model three dimensional hydraulic components, such as impeller, half blades attached to the impeller, casing, front and back shroulds.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 112-116 [Abstract] ( 1833 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 344KB] ( 1186 )
117 Optimization design for water buricated bearing clearance of seawater desalination pump
Ye Xiaoyan, Zhang Junhui, Ding Yana, Jiang Wei, Zhang Li
Six water lubricated bearings with different clearance were designed to solve lubricating pro blems in high pressure pumps for seawater desalination. The models were built by three dimensional software Pro/E.Based on k-ε two equation turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm, the interior flow field in different bearings clearances and the same bearing clearance at different eccentric distances were numerically simulated and analysed with Fluent software. The relationship of dynamic pressure distribution, bearing capacity, stiffness and bearing clearance were obtained. Simulation results show that the perfor mance of water lubricated bearing is the best at the clearance of 0.2 mm. Simulation results can predict the characteristics of water lubricated bearings, and provide the reference for optimization design and safe operation for high pressure pump.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 117-121 [Abstract] ( 2717 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 363KB] ( 867 )
122 3-D numerical simulation on transient characteristics of centrifugal pump during starting period
Yang Congxin, Wang Bin
In order to investigate the relationship between explicit transient performance and inner transient flow mechanism during starting period of a centrifugal pump, a mathematical model for unsteady starting and acceleration process was established, and the simulation was carried out to study the inner flow of a three dimensional  centrifugal pump during the starting period.The RNG k-ε model was adoped as the turbulence closure. The transient flow structure and its evolutionary process during the blade staring period were analyzed. The explicit transient characteristic curve versus time was also given and compared with that of quasi steady hypothesis.  The transient effect induced by the pump start up was studied qualitatively. The pressure distributions in impeller and volute were displayed to indicate pressure unbalance and serious pressure pulsation phenomenon, and which are the main reasons that induce impeller instability.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 122-126 [Abstract] ( 1569 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 395KB] ( 1346 )
127 Optimal design for secondary impeller of decompression tower bottom pump with high temperature by CFD
Hu Jingning, Liu Sanhua, Jiang Wei, Huang Mingke, Zhang Li
Nine groups of secondary internal flows of the decompression tower bottom pump on high temperature were simulated by Fluent, which consisted of the secondary impellers with different outlet widths and the volutes with different throat opening areas, and their performance characteristics were predicted by using finite volume method to disperse Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equations, stan dard k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm. According to the predicted results, the perfor mance curves were plotted and the influence caused by the outlet widths of the impellers and the throat opening areas of the volutes were analyzed. The analyzing results indicate that with the throat opening area increasing, the inlet width of volute increases, the back flow easily emerges at small flow rate, the head reduces, and high efficiency area moves to large flow, increasing the impeller outlet width can enlarge high effective area range. It provides reference for the optimal design of the pump, and the combination C-b is considered to be the best option.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 127-131 [Abstract] ( 1943 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 348KB] ( 940 )
132 Rotor′s intensity analysis of eccentric and squirmy rotor pump based on ANSYS
Zhang Shengchang, Wang Zonghuai, Deng Hongying, Liang Ning
Based on the geometry and motion characteristics of hydraulic end in eccentric and squirmy rotor pump, the stress and restriction condition of rotor during the squirm process were analyzed. According to the design parameters of eccentric and squirmy rotor pump, the load and restriction condition at six operating points were calculated and analyzed. A three dimensional model of rotor was built based on ANSYS, and analyzed with hexahedral SWEEP mesh method. Furthermore, a numerical simulation for Polyoxymethylene(Pom) rotor′s intensity and stiffness was carried out by using quasi dynamic model method, and the stress and strain data of the rotor at six operating points were derived. The results of numerical simulation show that the maximum stress of the rotor with Pom material is far less than the allowable value, and both the stress and strain of the rotor meet the demands. The results provide a basis for reliability design of eccentric and squirmy rotor pump.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 132-135 [Abstract] ( 2484 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 376KB] ( 1346 )
136 Design and experiment of alkali pump with back open dual “S” impeller
Gong Enxiang, Huang Mingke, Zhang Li, Liu Sanhua, Yang Wei
 Aiming at the alkali pump works in a strong corrosion condition and low efficiency ,a design method with dual “S” impeller was proposed. By using the enlarged flow rate coefficient method,the effects of geometry parameters of the impeller on passing performance and efficiency were analyzed and the hydraulic design method was introduced.The results show that the dual “S” impeller is benefit for transporting viscous medium.Adopting nickel base alloy, its metallographic structure is austenite,named HS-1, assures the anti corrosion performance and reduces the cost of the pump. According to process engineering requirements,a single stage cantilever structure was used and the system’s stability was improved. The test result shows that the dual “S” impeller of alkali pump has a steady Q-H curve.In addition,the actual head is 52.3 m and the flow rate is 4 m3/h,the efficiency of the pump is 16.18%.All the technical parameters are satisfied for the design requirements and achieves localization of  the alkali pumps.It is useful for the design of mini flow and low specific speed pump used in transporting high temperature, strong corrosion and viscous medium.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 136-139 [Abstract] ( 1484 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 356KB] ( 1073 )
140 Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in vane passage based on dynamical mesh technology
Huang Jianfeng, Zhang Lixiang, Wang Wenquan, Yao Ji
The numerical simulation of two dimensional transient turbulent flow in a guide vane passage of a Francis turbine was conducted based on the ALE(Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) and dynamic mesh technology. The dynamical changes of the pressure and velocity were simulated by Fluent 6.3, using unstructured triangle grid, standard  k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm as the guide vane was mo ving. The results show that the evolution of the flow field is unsteady with decreasing of the vane opening. Based on these researches, the eddy structures evolving spatially and temporally were visualized. The calculation provides some reference for vortex induced vibration in a complex turbulent flow of hydraulic machinery. The study is valuable for simulating the turbulence induced by the guide vane adjustment.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 140-143 [Abstract] ( 1982 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 353KB] ( 1167 )
144 Analysis on hydraulic transients of pumping station with Flowmaster
Wang Fujun, Bai Mianmian, Xiao Ruofu
Some key issues for the application of Flowmaster on the hydraulic transients calculation of pumping station were analysed. The modelling method of some basic components, such as pipe, pump, valve, air valve was proposed. Models of tunnel and surge tank, which are not provided by Flowmaster, were investigated. The tunnel was modeled by introducing a pressure correction factor in the pipe model. By modifying the reservoir model and combining input and output coefficient, the surge tank was mo delled. The proposed model and method were demonstrated in a domestic pump station. The hydraulic transients during pump start and stop were calculated, and the pressure variation along the pipe and tunnel was given. There is a serious negative pressure in the upstream of the pumping station when pump starts, and a reverse flow when pump stops without valve closure. Those phenomena are avoided by optimizing valve action and adding air valves.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 144-148 [Abstract] ( 2744 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 338KB] ( 1249 )
149 Hydraulic characteristics of flow field in pump and sluice gate
Huang Jianjun, Zheng Yuan, Zhang Dun
In order to raise stability and high effectiveness of pump and sluice gate engineering, the project on a pump and sluice gate works was carried out by an analysis of numerical simulation, and the structure near the sluice gate was optimized depending on the design parameters as a control condition and using Fluent software by computational fluid dynamics methods. Combining the river transflux features, effective transflux area rate and transflux uniformity were set up, which were two formula expressing flow patterns. Using two formulas as the objective of a numerical simulation and optimization function, the pump and sluice gate structure was optimized. The water current and flow field distribution at drawing and drainage conditions were analyed, and the water flow circumstance and transflux near the gate as well as the effect of “S” turn at the inland river side on the water current were investi gated. The results show that the maximum velocity modified of the inner and outer river area is less than 0.6~0.8 m/s, and the effective transflux area rate and transflux uniformity are greater than 0.75.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 149-154 [Abstract] ( 2131 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 404KB] ( 1165 )
155 Numerical simulation of internal flow of tubular pump system
Jin Yan, Liu Chao, Tang Fangping
Based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the RNG k-εturbulent model, the three dimensional flow field in a tubular pump system was simulated by CFD. The performance parameters of pump system such as head, shaft power and efficiency were predicted based on the calculation of different operating conditions with the flow rate range from 20 L/s to 35 L/s at the same rotating speed. At the best efficiency condition, the pressure is well distributed, and the flow pattern is steady, at small and large flow rate conditions the flow pattern in discharge passage becomes turbulent, flow deviation, separation and vortex are appeared. For verifying the accuracy and reliability of the calculation results, a model test was conducted. The comparison of simulation results and the experiment data show that the calculation performances close agree with the experiment results in the high efficiency area, but under the condition of large discharge and low rate, deviations exist between the two results.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 155-159 [Abstract] ( 1629 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 421KB] ( 1005 )
160 Multi objective fuzzy optimization model for border irrigation technical parameters
Ma Juanjuan, Sun Xihuan, Guo Xianghong, Li Yanfeng
To improve irrigation effect and water use highly, field application efficiency and water distribution uniformity were calculated using field application efficiency numerical simulation model. Regarded this two factors as object, the multi objective optimization model for border irrigation technical parameters was established. The fuzzy relation was analyzed and fuzzy solution was presented. Based on this, irrigation technical parameters of test borders were optimized using established numerical simulation model, and irrigation experiments were conducted on computed unit discharge and water supply time, and field application efficiency and water distribution uniformity were computed by measured data. Field application efficiency and water distribution uniformity between measured values and optimized objective values were compared. The results show that the measured values are in accordance with optimized objective values. It shows that this optimization model and its solution can satisfy the demand of water saving and guarantee for irrigation effect simultaneously.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 160-163 [Abstract] ( 1927 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 314KB] ( 1229 )
164 Improved genetic algorithm for optimization of single source tree type pipe network based on cycle
Yang Jianjun, Zhan Hong, Ding Yucheng
 An optimization model for single source tree type pipe network was established, in which the minimal summation of investment and operating cost was taken as objective function. Based on the feature that the optimizations of pipe layout and pipe diameter were needed simultaneously in the integrated majorization of pipe network,  the dual coding genetic algorithm combining binary coding with integer coding was adopted for solving the mathematical model, in which the mode of pipe layout was expressed by binary coding and pipe diameter was expressed by integer coding. Through the integer coding design, the pipe diameter restriction was satisfied automatically. Based on the similarity between single source tree type pipe network and spanning tree in the graph theory, cycle method was adopted to produce initial solutions, operate crossover and mutation in the operations of binary coding. The procreant chromosomes in the initial solutions creating and mutation operation are all feasible solutions, and essential condition of spanning tree is satisfied in crossover. Through these operations, the probability of infeasible solutions producing is reduced greatly, so the computational efficiency of the method is enhanced. An example shows the efficiency of the algorithm.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 164-168 [Abstract] ( 2001 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 345KB] ( 909 )
169 Numerical analysis of integrated performance of mechanicalseals with regular micro surface structure
Fu Yonghong, Ji Jinghu, Hua Xijun, Yang Chaojun, Bi Qinsheng
A theoretical analysis model was developed to study mechanical seals with regular micro surface structure considering cavitation within the fluid film between two faces and the interaction between hydrodynamic and hydrostatic components. Multi grid method was used to study the effect of geometric parameters of dimples which in the form of spherical shape on the seal performance such as opening force, friction torque and fluid film stiffness for various seal parameters. The results show that the seal factor and the ratio of depth/diameter of dimple have significant effect on the seal performance. Opening force and fluid film stiffness increase as the seal factor increases, there have optimum values for the ratio of depth/diameter of dimple to maximize the opening force and fluid film stiffness respectively, and as the seal factor increases the optimum value of ratio of depth/diameter decreases. Area density of dimple has little effect on the seal performance, there have optimum values for the area density of dimple to maximize the opening force and fluid film stiffness respectively, and the seal parameter has not effect on the optimum value of area density.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 169-173 [Abstract] ( 2167 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 395KB] ( 999 )
174 Hydraulic characteristics of transportation of different piped carriages in pipe
Li Yongye, Sun Xihuan, Li Fei, Wang Rui
In order to solve the problems of traditional piped hydraulic transportation, a new technique of energy conservation and environmental protection—the piped hydraulic transportation of tube contained raw material was put forward. The piped carriage was one of the key parts of the technique. By a combination of theoretical analysis and model experiments, the stressed characteristics of the piped carriages were analyzed and hydraulic characteristics of the transportation of different types of piped carriages in the pipe were researched. The research results show that the structural form of the piped carriage has a significant influence on the motion speed and transport energy consumption. The motion speed and transport energy consumption are the largest for the 150 mm×80 mm piped carriage, take the second place for the 100 mm×80 mm piped carriage, and are the smallest for the 150 mm×70 mm piped carriage. These conclusions can be used as reference for further improvement on the structure of the piped carriage.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 174-178 [Abstract] ( 1747 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 362KB] ( 1038 )
179 Current research status and development trend of greenhouse in China
Wang Xinkun, Li Hong
As the main body of facility agriculture, the greenhouse play an important role in adding the China vegetable supply, increasing farmer income, promoting agricultural industry, improving the living standard and so on, which has a broad market space and development prospects. At present, the greenhouse industry has made rapid development in theoretical research, control technology, equipment and industrial scale, formed the greenhouse industry and technical system with Chinese characteristics initially. But the scientific content and technological level remain to be further improved in equipment matching capability, environmental regulation and energy saving, mechanization and automation, crop cultivation and management. Increasing the research and application on new technology, new material and new product, strengthening the research on basic theory and standard system, and improving the systematicness, reliability, and advancement of greenhouse equipment, can direct greenhouse industry to high efficiency, low energy consumption, environmental protection, multi function, intelligentization, standardization, regional development, etc.
2010 Vol. 28 (2): 179-184 [Abstract] ( 5124 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 440KB] ( 2559 )
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