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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
2011 Vol.29 Issue.2
Published 2011-03-30

93 Numerical calculation of internal flow induced noise in centrifugal pump volute
Yuan Shouqi, Si Qiaorui, Xue Fei, Yuan Jianping, Zhang Jinfeng
 An indirect method based on CFD and Lighthill sound analogy theory was adopted to solve the acoustic field of volute in centrifugal pumps for the complexity of the acoustic boundary conditions and high requirement of computational resources of the direct method. The DES method and S-A model were used to process threedimensional unsteady simulation. Dipole is the main noise source in pumps and the datum of pressure fluctuation were extracted from the CFD results as dipole input into SYSNOISE5.6 as the initial conditions. In acoustic simulation, the distribution graphs about dipole source and sound pressure can be got using DBEM. The results show that the distribution of the acoustic source which directly associate to the pressure fluctuation of the volute face generally aggregate at cutwater with the same frequency characteristic. Field sound pressure and dipole source do not have simple linear relationship and the strongest radiation intensity appears at blade passing frequency. Pipeline method applied in flow induced noise measurement is feasible and the flow rate is one of the major factors in acoustic radiation.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 93-98 [Abstract] ( 2980 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 514KB] ( 1850 )
99 CFD simulation on cavitation characteristics in centrifugal pump
Wang Yong, Liu Houlin, Yuan Shouqi, Tan Minggao, Wang Kai
The standard k-ε turbulence model, homogeneous multiphase model and Rayleigh-Plesset equation were applied to simulate cavitation characteristics in a centrifugal pump with specific speed of 94 under different conditions based on ANSYS CFX software. According to the simulation results, the energy characteristics under the no-cavitation conditions and cavitation characteristics of the model pump were predicted, and the vapor volume distribution on the middle stream surface of impellerand the blade loading characteristics on the middle stream line under different cavitation conditionswere analyzed. The comparison between prediction values and experimental values indicates that the prediction results are accurate to some extent, and the absolute errors of net positive suction head under different conditions are 0.25, 0.29 and 0.06 m, respectively. The flow field analysis indicates that the vapors generated at suction side of blade near the leading edge at firstand then extended to the outlet of impeller with the reduction of inlet total pressure. Compared with other blades, the loading on the blade that against the volutetongue is the least and the loading on the other blades at the relative position of 0.35-0.80increased obviously with the deterioration of cavitation condition,which shows that the blade loading is significantly affected by cavitation.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 99-103 [Abstract] ( 3620 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 508KB] ( 3490 )
104 Experiment on filtration characteristics and water quality of Yangtze River water into heat pump unit
Tong Mingwei, Qin Zenghu
Because the surfacewater in upper region of the Yangtze River contains large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, it can not be directly used as circulating cooling water in the river water source heat pump unit. In order to solve the problem, the water temperature and quality of Yangtze River in Chongqing area were analyzed, the principle of application of water to prevent clogging of the filter device was introduced, and the performance of clean up and anti-clogging of device was tested through experiment. The experimental results show that the river sediment can be reduced to 100 g/m3 after filtration,with an average removal rate of 68.5%,and suspended solids and algae levels also decreased to 50-100 NTU basically, with its average removal rate is 73.1%, which can meet the requirements of water quality into heat pump unit directly. The load impedance of pipe lines matches the characteristic impedance, and the water hammer pressure amplitude is small. It can resolve the key technical problems of clean up, anticlogging and anti water hammer when the surface water runs into the heat pump in the upper Yangtze River region. The entire separation system is simple, easy installation, reliable operation, low operation cost, and can be automatic cleaning, filtering and sewage residue automatic draining using the water flow and gravity, so it has great application prospects in the surface water source heat pump system in the Yangtze River region.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 104-108 [Abstract] ( 2387 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 366KB] ( 1690 )
109 Finite element computation for impeller of stamping and welding centrifugal pump
Wang Yang, Wang Hongyu, Xu Xiaomin, Zhang Xiang
In order to calculate the stress and deformation of an impeller, the finite element analysis was carried out for a stamping and welding centrifugal pump impeller in ANSYS with fluid structure interaction(FSI) method. The fluid pressure load distribution on impeller surfaces was obtained first by computational fluid dynamics(CFD) method and then was exerted on impeller structural model. Firstly,the sensitivity of the impeller model with different mesh density was analyzed. Then, the equivalent stress and total deformation of the impeller were calculated under three action conditions of centrifugal inertia force, fluid pressure load and the coupling of the two kinds of loads, respectively. In addition, the characteristics of the largest stress and total deformation under different flow rate conditions were investigated. The results show that the stress and deformation induced by centrifugal inertial load are much less than that caused by fluid pressure load. The stress and deformation of impeller are mainly caused by the fluid pressure load, while there are slightly increases for stress and deformation after the inertial load being involved. The maximal stress of calculated impeller under all kinds of loads shows the largest value appears at low flow rate condition, and decreases continuously as the flow rate increasing. The greatest total deformation shows the maximum value appears at low flow rate condition, and increases first and then decreases with the increasing of the flow rate, and reaches its minimum value at the best efficiency point.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 109-113 [Abstract] ( 2210 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 445KB] ( 1842 )
114 Simulation for magnetic driver system of magnetic pump
Cong Xiaoqing, Qian Yuqin, Zhang Xiaochun, Wang Liwei
Based on the analysis of characteristics of the structure,design flow and design method of the cylinder typed radial magnetic driver,the secondary development of the API function of SolidWorks was carried out by applying Visual Basic language on the supporting platform of SolidWorks software. The magnetic driver simulation system contains three parts,such as parametric design, parametric modelingand parametric finite element, and it could realize the automodeling and assembling of every parts of the magnetic drive quikly. Based on ANSYS software, the study use vector potential method and scalar potential method to build 2D models of the magnetic field of cylinder typed radial magnetic driver, then do the solution computation and analysis the distribution of magnetic line,the distribution of magnetic induction and the size of the moment of magnetic force. A template for magnetic drivers structure calculating and analysis based on ANSYS is built. The developed magnetic driver simulation system, under different design parameters, is advantageous for the magnetic driver to rebuild the model fast, and carry on the finite element simulation analysis,that explored a lower consumption higher qualitydesign and analysis method.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 114-117 [Abstract] ( 2369 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 373KB] ( 2060 )
123 Development of VBA for pump performance experimental data based on Excel
Tang Yue, Zhao Kun, Xu Wenbo
The pump performance curve experimental data were often stored.In the Excel tables.In order that the pump performance data were carried out numerical calculations in the Excel electronic tables automatically, the secondary development about the original preparation of pump performance test data was processed in Excel tables by VBA(Visual Basic for Applications)technology. The selection button and test results button about pump test tolerance level would be added in the electronic tables, according to fault tolerance levels and discrimination criterion in the GB/T 3216—2005 standard requirements, as well as least squares fitting algorithm and interpolation algorithms, the VBA programming on these two functions buttons was proceeded respectively, by clicking on the test results button, it can be achieved of interpolation calculation and performance discrimination on the pump performance test data, furthermore, the performance data and discrimination results in specified point and intersection point would also be obtained. As the applied example of BQW15-30-4submersible pumps, doing the hydraulic performancetests, determining the performance and drawing curves.The result shows that,  H-Q  curve intersects with the cross tolerance bottom of the vertical line,which meets the requirement. The method enhanced the interpolation calculation function of Excel dealing with pump test data by VBA technology,saving a large number of curve drawing work.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 123-126 [Abstract] ( 2676 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 333KB] ( 2210 )
127  Optimal methods and its application of large pumping station operation
Feng Xiaoli, Qiu Baoyun, Yang Xingli, Shen Jian, Pei Bei
In order to master modern optimal methods, which are suitable for solving large pumping stationoptimal operation with multivariables. Basic principles of genetic algorithms(GA), particle swarm optimization(PSO) and simulated annealing particle swarm optimization(SA-PSO) were introduced, and the similarities and differences were analyzed. It is concluded that PSO is more simple and efficient than GA. Taking Jiangdu pumping station system in Eastern Route of South to North Water Transfer Projectas an example, under the circumstances of certain pump assembly head, selecting the number of running pump units and blade setting angles of water pumps as variables, optimal mathematical models for pumping station operation schemes were established aiming at the least operation cost, meeting the constraint conditions such as total pumping discharge, allowed discharge of single pump and the number of running pump units. GA, PSO and SA-PSO were applied to solve the models respectively to determinethe number of running pump units, operation duties of pump units and daily operation cost of each pumping station. Constraint conditions were used to deal with feasible rules, and calculating procedurewas programmed with Matlab. The results indicate that the operation costs of the optimum schemes by adjusting pump blade setting angles with SA-PSO are 0.99%-4.22% less than that of the conventional schemes under design blade angles, and among the three optimum schemes, the operation cost of the optimum scheme based on SA-PSO is about 0.22%-2.80%, 0.02%-0.40% less than that based on GA and PSO respectively. Computing times of the three optimizing algorithms are 30, 52 and 25 s respectively. Therefore, SA-PSO is more suitable for solving large pumping station operation optimization problems.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 127-132 [Abstract] ( 2160 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 344KB] ( 2112 )
133 Technical measure for discontinuous trajectory bucket energy dissipation and sediment prevention at forebay of pumping station
Gao Chuanchang, Wang Yuchuan, Shi Liwen, Liu Wei, Yang Hongcun
Based on hydraulic flow analysis of forebay and field tests before rehabilitation, the turbulent flow pattern in Tianshan first level pumping station was found, which caused intensive vibration and intermittentvibration of pump units. Then the technical measure of discontinuous trajectory bucket energy dissipation and sediment prevention(DTBED & SPTM), which involves discontinuous bottom baffle sills, discontinuous trajectory bucket piers and two pressure plates, was presented. The experimental results afterrehabilitation show that, with the application of the technical measure, flow patterns of forebay and sump, as well as the pump intake condition are significantly improved, velocity distribution of forebay middle section is uniform and turbulent energy is decreased obviously. The flow rate of single pump, the pump efficiency and device efficiency of pumping station are averagely increased 0.14 m3/s, 4.99% and 3.88%, respectively. The intermittent vibration of pump body is eliminated, and the vibration standard of pump bell mouth intake decreases from intensity stage 4.5to intensity stage 1.8. The sediment depositionof forebay and sump is slowed down, and the sediment removing time is extended from 800 hours before rehabilitation to 1 300 hours after rehabilitation, which proves effective in sediment prevention. The DTBED & SPTM offers a simple yet effective approach to technical rehabilitation of pumping station technological rehabilitation on rivers with high sediment content.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 133-138 [Abstract] ( 2231 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 438KB] ( 1718 )
139 Surge mechanism of centrifugal blower in WWTP
Hu Jian, Cai Lan, Liu Meng
In order to ensure centrifugal blower safe running in WWTP and prevent surge in operation, in view of centrifugal blower characteristics and present research status, factors producing surge in WWTP were analyzed, reasons causing surge and measures preventing surge were studied. Considering from process design, different formula commonly used were compared and  the appropriate oxygen requirement formula in technique design was obtained. Taking a sewage treatment plant with 1 phase of project as the example, according to the performance curves from factories and the testing results on spot, new surge flux of control point was calculated and an accurate air supply was identified. By changing operating procedure when switching blower, the clogging in aeration plate holes was decreased, the blower discharge resistance was reduced, which leads to blower running point deviating from the surge point. Thus, blower discharge resistance is down 5 kPa and the regeneration period of aeration plate is up 1 year. Placing an inducer in front of the blower can adjust the air inflowing angle in small flux. It changes the blower characteristicsand expands the blower regulation scope. The test results indicate that when flux control to 60%, the efficiency drops gently.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 139-143 [Abstract] ( 2460 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 331KB] ( 2555 )
144 Optimization and system development of circulating water pump in thermal power plant based on theory of energy value
Zhang Lei, Wei Long, Feng Fei, Tu Zhongqiang, Xu Zhigao
Energy efficiency and fuel economy are the key subjects in the profit driven electricity generation market. The objective functions of an energy consumption optimization model and an economic optimizationmodel have been established based on engineering thermodynamics and energy value theory. These models took account of the market value difference between coal and electricity. The circulating pump optimal operation online scheduling was derived by calculating steam turbine back pressure correctioncurve and the pump and condenser features. A thermal power plant optimized circulating water system was developed with PI real time database in.NET platform. Data were read from PI database periodicallyfor pre processing and steady state discrimination to determine the most effective pumping by using Genetic Algorithm. The optimal gains can be found and operational recommendations can be given from the system. The system has been applied on six units in a power plant. In a certain condition, it can save power of 975.46 kW and increase revenue of 171.18 RMB/h through stopping a circulating pump of unit 1# and 2#. The system significantly reduces the risks introduced by human operators and inefficient pump adjustment. Its user friendly interface makes the system easy to use and promote.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 144-148 [Abstract] ( 2286 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 385KB] ( 1611 )
149 Multi-objective optimization of crop planting structure based on remote sensing and ant colony algorithm
Zhang Zhitao, Liu Junmin, Chen Junying, Wang Zhinong, Li Yuannong
A water saving and multi-objective planting structure optimization model was put forward  againstthe mismatching between regional planting structure and water resources. Based on the matching degree between water requirement at different crop growing stages and the regional precipitation as well as the crop planting structure obtained by remote sensing, a planting structure optimization model with multiple objectives such as water saving, economic and ecological benefits in the irrigated area was established.With Wuquan irrigation district in Baojixia as an example, the model was optimized with ant colony algorithm. The total water requirements for irrigation district of plan 1 and plan 2 is respectively 85.4% and 83.4% of the present situation. The income of plan 1 is lower 5.4% and the plan 2 is higher7.1% than common years. Meanwhile the income of plan 1 is lower 5.9% and the project 2 is higher 7.3% than the droughty years. The coupling degree of precipitation of plan 1 and plan 2 is  respectively higher 12.6% and 15.6% than common years while higher 17.5% and 28.6% than droughty years. The comparison between the two plans of controlled optimization shows that the second one is the better readjustment plan because, without changing the planting area, the structure optimization helps not only maintain the sustainable development of the entironment but also improve the economic income dramatically. It is practically and theoretically for agricultural water saving planning.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 149-154 [Abstract] ( 2008 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 348KB] ( 1502 )
155 Characteristics of velocity field and vorticity field in generator
Li Yongye, Sun Xihuan, Wang Rui
In order to solve the problems of pipe blockage of the sediment laden flow in lowpressure pipe irrigation, a spiral flow waterconveying method was adopted in the lowpressure pipe irrigation. The generatorwas the key device to generate the spiral flow. Through theoretical analysis and experimental exploration, four testing sections were designed in the generator inner aisle and the hydraulic characteristics of the spiral flow in each testing section were studied. The results show that the guide vanes have significant influence on the velocity field and the vorticity field in the generator. In different radial cylinders,the velocity changes greater in the curve segment of the guide vane, and the closer it is to the pipe wall the greater the velocity changes. In the same radial cylinder,the variations of the axial velocity are the largest, while those of the circumferential component take second place and those of the radial component are the smallest. The vortex happens at the entrance to the guide vane. Then the vorticity increases constantly and diffuses to the region without guide vanes. The dense area of the vorticity is formed and at the existing region of guide vanes, and the closer it is to the pipe wall the greater the vorticity changes. Meanwhile, the rotational violent degree was described by the values of Rossby number and Ekman number when the water flow goes through the generator. The Rossby numbers are less than 1 and the magnitudes of Ekman number lie between 10-6 and 10-5 in the vorticity field of the spiral flow in the generator. It shows that the rotational violent degree is greater while the water flow goes through the generator.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 155-159 [Abstract] ( 2260 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 475KB] ( 2574 )
160 Energy distribution and statistic characteristics in round water jet
Kang Can, Yang Minguan, Zhang Feng, Gao Bo
Under jet pressures of 13, 15 and 17 MPa, experiments were conducted by using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer(PDPA) to measure axial mean velocity, axial fluctuating velocity and droplet diameter in the free water jet flows. Velocity of single droplet and corresponding droplet amount were statisticallyanalyzed when those droplets passed through the predefined measuring volumes at different positions in the three jet streams. Energy distribution in the free water jet flows was expected to be  described consequently. The results indicate that distributions of axial velocity are rather similar for the five studied sections under the same jet pressure. Large gradient of axial velocity occurs at the jet rim. Maximum axial root mean square(RMS) velocity appears at the jet rim and overall axial RMS velocity increaseswith the jet pressure. Droplets with high velocity are predominant in central measuring volumes. However, the droplets passing through the rim measuring volumes are characterized by a wide velocity range. Different variation tendencies of statistical relation are proved at different sections when jet  pressurechanges. Within the first sampling period, there is slight difference of the amount of the droplets passing through central measuring volumes. However, at rim measuring volumes, variations of droplet  amountwith jet pressure and location of sampling section are remarkably irregular.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 160-164 [Abstract] ( 2160 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 458KB] ( 1946 )
165 Numerical simulation on flow field of aerostatic dry gas seal
Wang Heshun, Dong Lin, Huang Zepei, Zhang Chening, Chen Cichang
In order to improve the performance of an aerostatic dry gas seal, the flow field numerical  simulationwas carried out based on the N-S equation, laminar flow model and SIMPLEC algorithm with different throttle diameters and face clearances. The gas film pressure distributes and force changes were analyzed especially. The results show that significant pressure drop formed after the gas flows through orifice, and the drop value increases with clearance increases, decreases with orifice diameter increases. The highestpressure appears at the center of shallow groove, and is gradually declining to around. Bigger pressure gradient appears in the shallow groove near the edge area. The opening force general decreases with clearance, minimum value is close to zero. When the face clearance is in the range of 5-12 μm, the opening force increases rapidly with clearance decreasing, therefore larger gas film stiffness is formed. According to calculations, smaller orifice diameter is helpful to get larger gas film stiffness under the conditionsof less face clearance. Both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic test were carried out, the diameter of the seal tested was 30 mm and the test speed is of 50-300 r/min. The leakage and wear were monitoredand the results show that the sealing achieved stable non-contacting operation.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 165-169 [Abstract] ( 2430 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 420KB] ( 1766 )
170 Effect of different irrigation technology on production of winter wheat
Du Wenyong, He Xiongkui, Hu Zhenfang, Zia S., Muller J.
The object was to explore the effect of different irrigation technology (drip, sprinkler and flood irrigation) on the yield components of winter wheat. Different irrigation technology was is applied in the field to research effect of different irrigation technology on the yield components. Such results as follow: the rate of decline soil moisture on the surface is the smallest and the soil moisture is highest when the drip irrigation is applied. The height of winter wheat of drip irrigation applied is 12% and 5% more than that of sprinkler and flood irrigation, respectively. The yield of the drip and sprinkler irrigation applied is 8.63% and 7.75% more than that of flood irrigation. The weight of one thousand of grains under drip, sprinkler and flood irrigation was 43.36, 42.17 and 41.17 g respectively. The grain weight is also more than that of flood irrigation and likewise the biomass, which is 6.9% and 3% higher under drip and sprinkler irrigation. This implies that the drip irrigation is better to used when the overall objective is to increase the water use efficiency. And likewise sprinkler irrigation is also better than flood irrigation.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 170-174 [Abstract] ( 2357 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 361KB] ( 1931 )
175 Effect of emitters manufacturing variation of micro-irrigation on uniformity and lateral cost
Zhu Delan, Wu Pute , Wang Jian
In order to find the relationship among the emitter manufacturing variation coefficient, the  lateralcost and the lateral diameter, and to decrease the cost of drip irrigation engineering the allowable values of the emitters manufacturing variation coefficient are analyzed for different emission uniformity coefficients(EEU). Then, the relationship among the esmitters manufacturing variation coefficient, lateral diameter,and the  EEUis investigated.The function of the lateral cost is also parameterized.An application illustration shows that the pipe cost increases by 8.7% and 37.1% when the emitters manufacturing variationcoefficients increase from 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.11, respectively, for the lateral length of 100 m and  EEUof 0.80. When the  EEUincreases from 0.80 to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95, the lateral diameter increasesby 20%,23.5% and 56.5% and lateral cost increases by 20%,53.8% and 207.7%, respectively, for the emitters manufacturing variation coefficient of 0.03. For the emitters manufacturing variation coefficient of 0.05, when  EEUincreases from 0.80 to 0.85, 0.90, the lateral diameter increases by 19.3% and 32.8%, and lateral cost increased by 17.1% and 71.4%, respectively. In addition, when the  EEUis 0.95, the hydraulic calculation cannot be performed, because the allowable hydraulic variation is negative. It is concluded that the lateral diameter and cost increase significantly with increasingthe emitters manufacturing variation coefficient and the given uniformity coefficient. Furthermore, when the emitters manufacturing variation coefficient or the emission uniformity coefficient is larger than a preset value, the hydraulic design can not be carried out.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 175-179 [Abstract] ( 2253 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 341KB] ( 1677 )
180 Head loss hydraulic calculation step by step for light and small sprinkler irrigation system
Zhu Xingye, Cai Bin, Tu Qin
To overcome the accurate calculation problems for head loss of light and small sprinkler irrigationsystem, the related issues were discussed based on the basic fluid mechanism. Arranged in a line type unit, hydraulic calculation of the system was carried out step by step based on the structure and operating characteristics. The total head loss between two sprinklers was simplified as loss along the pipe multiplying experience coefficient. The formulas of sprinkler operating pressure in the system were derived. The calculation methods for head loss of the system were proposed. An example was presented to illustrate the application of the formula, and the units typed 65ZB-40C&12×PY120 were set up for the outdoor tests. The experience coefficient was chosen 1.1 for the theoretical calculation, and 65ZB-40C pump was ensured operating in its design point. The results show that the flux were reduced along with the pipe, the sprinkler operating pressure keep reduction and stable in the first and end sides, respectively. Error bars of experimental and theoretical results were figured out. After calculation, the biggest absoluteerror happened in the sprinkler number 3 and the relative error between them were within 0.27%-1.96%.
2011 Vol. 29 (2): 180-184 [Abstract] ( 3002 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 360KB] ( 1693 )

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徐云峰  张文涛 陈建华
谈国鹏  朱漪云 盛    杰


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· National Research Center of Pumps

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