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Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin
 
2011 Vol.29 Issue.1
Published 2011-01-30

article
Article
1 Flow characteristics of pump-turbine at turbine braking mode
Wang Leqin,Liu Jinta0,Liang Chenghong,Jiao Lei
bstract:To study the instability characteristics of pump—turbine at turbine braking mode,a hydraulic model Wag established based on a pumped storage power station.The SST k一ω model and SIMPLEC algorithms were used to simulate the internal flow fields and external characteristics at turbine braking
condition.Compared with the experimental data,the simulation results were examined.The results show that the head changes is small as flow rate changes in turbine braking condition.Higher rotating speed is needed to get into the braking mode as the opening of guide vanes increase.The pump turbine can be prevented from running into braking mode by adjusting the opening of guide vanes.Flow is regular and there is no vortex structure at zero moment point when guide vanes at operating opening.There have lots of periodical distribution vonexes in inlet of blades and guide vanes a8 well as the region between guide vanes and stay vanes with flow rate decreased.The vortexes in runner are caused by large forward inclina-tion of blade,while vortexes in guide vanes are due to the angle of attack between flow direction andguide vanes.These conclusions can provide a theory basis for optimal design for pump-turbine.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 1-5 [Abstract] ( 3028 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1044KB] ( 1163 )
6 Orthogonal experiment on performance of submersible mining pump
Shi Weidong,Sun Xinqing,Lu Weigang,Cao Weidong,Zhang Hua
bstract:Taking a BQS20—40—5.5 pump commonly used in coal mine draingage as a cage.three main factors,including inlet blade attack angle,outlet blade angle and blade number,were chosen to carry out orthogonal test.Nine test schemes were acquired by choosing three levels to the parameters sta—ted above by using k(34)orthogonal table.By using SLMPLE algorithm and standard k-ω turbulencemodel,single phase pure water and solid-liquid two—phase flow simulations were carried out according to the nine schemes defined by orthogonal test.The relationship between efficiency and factors were got through range value calculation for simulation results.The results show that the outlet blade angle and blade number are different in single phase pure water and solid-liquid two·phase flow simulations.It Can be seen that small solid particles concentrated on the impeller pressure side,move to the out peripheral along the pressure side,and discharge at the impeller outlet with a small flow angle.Some particles in the departure of the impeller pressure side collide with the blades pressure side,and increases the impel lererosion.Therefore,the outlet blade angle should not be too large in the design of solid—liquid two·phase flow pump.When the two phase theory was applied in the optimization design of BQS20—40—5.5 pump,the design point efficiency is higher than the national standards,the wear of the impeller and the operational life of the pump are greatly improved.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 6-10 [Abstract] ( 2201 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 939KB] ( 1021 )
11 Prediction of cavitation performance of axial—flow pump based on CFD
Yang Zhengjun,Wang Fujun,Liu Zhuqing,Zhang Zhimin
Abstract:The flow field in an axial-flow pump at different inlet pressure conditions including cavitating and non-cavitating conditions was simulated by using the computational fluid dynamics(CFD)approach based on theory of bubble dynamics and steam-liquid two-phase flow.The velocity field and pressure
distribution were analysed during cavitation progress and the pump characteristics were predicted.The results show that under the non—cavitating condition,the pump head-flow relationship is well predicted with an inaccuracy within 2%.While under the cavitating condition。the cavitation occurring and develo-ping processes are captured successfully by CFD simulation.The cavitation directly affects the pressure distribution on impeller blade surfaces,and also results in change of the pump head and power eharacteristics.Under the cavitation condition,the cavitation area can be found at the leading edge of the guidevane suction sides.Similarity of the cavitation distribution are found among the different impeller passages.But significant differences of the cavitation distribution are revealed among the different guide vanepassages.which is one of the primary factors that result in unstable operation of an axial-flow pump.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 11-15 [Abstract] ( 2502 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 0KB] ( 337 )
16 Design of canned motor pump GPS40-9 F
Kong Fanyu,Zhou Shuiqing,Shen Xiaokai,Wang Wenting,Shao Fei
Abstract:In order to improve the performance of the canned motor pump and simplify the design period,the canned motor and the hydraulic components of canned motor pump GPS40—-9F were designed on basis of numefical simulation。The command flow was written by using the parametrization design
language APDL in ANSYS and was used to complete the entire magnetic field simulation.Magnetic field lines,magnetic flux density distribution maps derived from two canned motor models were analysed.The three-dimensional model of the hydraulic components in canned motor pump was constructed and the flow field simulation was carried out at different operating points by using SIMPLER algorithm and SIMPLE algorithm in the CFX.The results show that the air-gap flux of model 2 is greater than that of model l,which is nlore conducive to conversion between the electrical and mechanical energy. In the same condi-tions of model and mesh,the calculation by using SIMPLER algorithm is more efficient than that by using SIMPLE aI_Sorithm.Therefore,SIMPLER algorithm is better in convergence results.Comparing the simu-lation results with the experimental values,which confirms that the numerical simul ation computation isfeasible and accutate.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 16-20 [Abstract] ( 1884 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 950KB] ( 973 )
21 Structural design and experiment of submerged pump with magnetic fluid seal
Guan Hongyan1,Yang Fengyu2,Wang Qilei1
 In order to solve the leakage problem of colorless and virulent hydrogen fluoride in the transportation process of nuclear raw materials of submerged pump,magnetic fluid sealing technology was introduced.A set of sealing structure adopting screw tooth was designed,and design formulas of seal pressure differential were deduced.Through theoretical analysis and experimental investigations,the impact of rotation speed,temperature,magnetic fluid volume,sealing clearance and magnetic field intensity on sealing loading capacity of magnetic fluid in liquid working environment were discussed.The results show that the loading capacity decreases while rotation speed,temperature or sealing clearance increases.The higher the magnetic field strength,the higher the loading capacity.The maximum experimental value of loading capacity is 8×105 Pa.Besides,the loading capacity enlarges while magnetic fluid volume increases.But when magnetic fluid volume exceeds a critical value,the sealing loading capacity will have no change and maintain at a constant value.The leakage problem of virulent hydrogen fluoride will be effectively solved
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 21-25 [Abstract] ( 2424 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 461KB] ( 1152 )
26 Numerical simulation of unsteady flow in double-blade pump
Zhu Rongsheng, Hu Ziqiang, Yang Ailing
In order to analyse the unsteady flow characteristics in a double-blade pump,the computational domain composed of impeller,volute casing and the stretch of the inlet of impeller, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model were used to simulate the flow fields under the design condition. The static pressure and relative velocity distributions at different time were compared, and the time-domain spectrums, frequency spectrums and instant lift were investigated. The results indicate that the static pressure and relative velocity distributions of the same passage at different time and those of different passages at the same time are different, that are concerning with the relative locations between the passages and the tongue. There have pressure fluctuations in the double-blade pump evidently, and near the tongue area the pressure fluctuations are of the most violent ones. Along with the distance from the tongue increasing the pressure fluctuation strength becomes weaken gradually, and the dominant frequency is equal to the blade passing frequency. The simulation can offer certain theoretical basis to understand the flow rules in the double-blade pump, raise efficiency and decrease hydraulic loss.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 26-30 [Abstract] ( 2066 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 977KB] ( 1060 )
31 Structural design and performance comparison of two kinds of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series
Sun Xiaofeng, Yang Zhigang, Jiang Delong
In order to research structure effect on output performance of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series, two structural forms of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion and no diversion slot were designed according to its working principle. The experimental samplers were manufactured and output performance experiments were carried out with water and air as the medium, respectively. The experimental results show that output flow rate of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion slot is better by powered 110 V sinusoidal AC drive voltage. The maximum output of liquid and gas flow rate are 1 100 mL/min and 650 mL/min, respectively, but residual bubble in the diversion slot is its disadvantage. Both the overall output pressure are closer and maximum output pressure reaches to 100 kPa. The self-priming performance of pump with no diversion slot is better and the largest self-priming water column height is 45 cm.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 31-34 [Abstract] ( 2508 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 389KB] ( 1240 )
35  Fatigue analysis of piezoelectric vibrator for pump based on ANSYS/Fatigue
He Xiuhua, Bi Yushi, Wang Jian, Zhuo Hongcai
In order to predict fatigue life of the piezoelectric vibrator used in piezoelectric pump, the finite element model of bimorph piezoelectric vibrator was made and static analysis was carried out by using ANSYS software. The equivalent stress contours were obtained, and the danger points were found out. Then the fatigue analysis was carried out to those danger points by applying ANSYS/Fatigue module and was compared with the other concentrated points. Consequently the fatigue consumption coefficients were obtained. Thus the bimorph piezoelectric vibrator strength and fatigue life could be predicated effectively by the Miner rule. The model was also applied to study the effect of different base materials and structural parameters to the bimorph piezoelectric vibrator fatigue life and was compared with the single-chip piezoelectric vibrator. The results show that the best base material is Cu, radius does not affect the fatigue life, and different thicknesses make larger effect than voltage to the fatigue life. In addition, bimorph piezoelectric vibrator are always longer than the single-chip one, which provides a theoretical basis for selecting and improving the structure of piezoelectric vibrator.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 35-38 [Abstract] ( 2486 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 582KB] ( 1445 )
39 Stability of flexible plates with different boundary conditions in axial flow
Liu Meiqing, Zhao Wensheng, Jiang Jin, Lin Qi
 The partial differential equations of motion based on the inextensibility assumption were derived for flexible plates with different boundary conditions subjected to axial flow. The flexible plates were either clamped or pinned at both ends, or clamped at the leading edge and free at the trailing edge (cantilevered). The Galerkin method was used to discretize the partial differential equations. The complex modal analysis was adopted to analyze the instability characteristics of the plates. The non-dimensional critical flow velocities were predicted, the relationship between damping, frequency and flow velocity were also discussed. It is shown that for sufficiently high flow velocities the plates may be subject to buckling and flutter. Typically, clamped-clamped and pinned-pinned plates are subject to buckling in their first mode, and to flutter in their higher modes. Furthermore, second mode buckling occurs for pinned-pinned plates, while cantilevered plates flutter in their second and third modes.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 39-44 [Abstract] ( 1992 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 359KB] ( 954 )
45 Experiment on hydraulic characteristics of sudden-expansion channel with vegetation
Wang Ze, Zhang Jing
 Vegetated sudden-expansion open channel flow with the submerged plant of floating fern or emerging plant of lucky bamboo beds was studied in a laboratory flume. An acoustic doppler velocimeter was employed to measure the instantaneous flow velocity at different measure points of different vertical lines before and after the sudden expansion. The distribution of the mean flow velocity was calculated in order to analyze its characteristic and discuss the influence of plants in open channel on the internal structure of water flow. The experiment revealed that before vegetating, the middle current curve before and after sudden-expansion was semi-logarithmically distributed; after vegetating, because of the influence of two different plants, the distribution of flow velocity under submerged plant condition was classified into three levels: the canopy, the vegetable layer, and the intermediate bed. The intermediate bed was increasingly enlarged. Due to the different water-blocking effects on the different positions of emerging plant, the flow velocity assumes “3” style distribution. The velocity distribution of left vertical line located at the return flow region was more complex and was not semi-logarithmically distributed. After vegetating, the velocity distribution of the identical vertical line under different discharge has a great change. And the variance ratio of velocity distribution was increased along with the discharge increased.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 45-49 [Abstract] ( 1834 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 559KB] ( 1037 )
50 Simulation of low frequency ultrasonic dual-atomization nozzle′s levitation process
Gao Jianmin, Li Yangbo
Researching the levitation to provide a theoretical basis for the second atomization and design guidelines, the finite element method was used, the 3D finite element model of the whole ultrasonic levitation system was built; the nozzle′s vibration frequency was 28 kHz,and its amplitude is 5 μm.Based on ultrasonic-structural coupled theory, the solution was carried out by the explicit dynamics software LS-DYNA; the motion states of the metal ball in the suspension was analyzed; obtaining the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the up and down movement and the angular velocity and angular acceleration. The results of numerical simulation show that the sound field is unstable when the low-frequency ultrasonic nozzle is vibrating; the acoustic radiation force generated by nozzle vibrates can suspend the metal ball to move up and down, and during the up and down movement, the metal ball also had a rotation around its centroid. The dynamics parameters of the ball suspended in the air are obtained through simulation compute, help to design the nozzle.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 50-53 [Abstract] ( 3493 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 668KB] ( 1729 )
54 Applying Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm on normal depth calculation of horse-shoe section tunnel
Zhang Kuandi, Wang guangqian, Lü Hongxing, Cheng Junying, Hong Cheng
Owing to the fact that the calculation formulas of normal depth for free flow in horseshoe section of tunnel and drainage culvert are not expressed by explicit function in hydraulics. By mathematical transformation of normal depth equation of  horse-shoe section tunnel, a model of nonlinear constrained optimization for calculating the normal depths of standard Ⅰ-type and Ⅱ-type horse-shoe section  tunnel was established. In order to accelerate the convergence rate of the algorithm and improve the searching ability of particle, an improved Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was presented. The dynamic inertia weight was changed in every loop according to the particle′s positions and the distance between the optimization particle. Error analysis and a computed illustration using the new method indicate that it is much more applicable, precise and simple than traditional methods for calculation of normal water depth. At the same time, the correctness and validity of the new method was demonstrated. So it provided a new tool for obtaining normal depth of open channel with horse-shoe section problem.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 54-60 [Abstract] ( 2066 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 451KB] ( 1073 )
61 Comparison of bulb tubular pump unit′s support forms
Qiu Baoyun, Pei Bei, Shen Jian, Feng Xusong, Feng Xiaoli
In order to optimize supporting structures of bulb tubular pump units and improve the properties, the supports of bulb tubular pump units were divided into 3 hierarchies, i.e. the bearing block support, the bulb support and the pump body support. The support forms of 3 typical bulb tubular pump units were investigated. The shaft deformations and fatigue strength safety factors were calculated through force analysis. Several typical support forms were compared in pump unit reliability, installation, maintainability and overall structure, and the pump system hydraulic performances. The design principles and methods of bulb tubular pump unit supports were put forward in bearing number and their arrangement and installation, the bulb supports and the pump body supports. The results show that supporting forms of bulb tubular pump units affect reliability, stability, installation and maintainability of the pump units and the pump system hydraulic performances. The flexivities of motor rotor and pump impeller reach 0.19~0.39 mm and 0.22~0.62 mm, respectively. The oil film thicknesses of journal bearings and rolling bearings are 0.41~0.53 mm and 0.12~0.17 mm, respectively. When determining the installation height of the bearing saddle, the flexivities of the rotor and the impeller and oil film thicknesses of the bearings should be considered so that the motor's air gap and the clearance between pump blade and shell are evenly distributed. The reliability and hydraulic performances of bulb tubular pump units could be improved by reasonably arranging guide bearings, adopting radiating plate support of the bulb, combining the maintenance channel and the main support which is under the bulb, and using the metal pipe pump structure. The achievements could provide references to optimum design of bulb tubular pump units.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 61-66 [Abstract] ( 1872 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 489KB] ( 913 )
67 Automatic identification of pump unit axis orbit based on invariant moments features and neural networks
Chen Jian, Ye Yuanjie, Chen Shu, Chen Guangda, Yu Yonghai, Wang Jianming
To meet the needs of signal processing on pump unit fault diagnosis, the principle of invariant moment theory was introduced. In addition, the neural network modeling as well as the sample acquisition in detail was discussed. As the shape of axis orbit responded the pump unit operation is related to a variety of fault, the real-time detection swing signals of axis on invariant moment were processed according to the invariant features of translation, scaling and rotation of invariant moment. And then the shape of axis orbit was determined by using BP neural network on pattern recognize. The combination of numerical simulation and on-site test were used to compensate the shortage of neural network training samples. All samples of both processed on invariant moment and the corresponding actual shape of the samples are of the neural network training ones. After network training completed, the output was compared with the actual shape of axis loci to validate this method. Taken the fault detection and diagnosis of Dayudu Pump Station in Shanxi for example, 10 sets of data of the sample were selectd to be compared, and the results show that the neural network recognition of the results are accurate. The method can provide the basis for orbit shape automatic identification and realizing fault diagnosis system intellectualization of pump unit.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 67-71 [Abstract] ( 2687 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 346KB] ( 1022 )
72 Numerical simulation of optimal bulb of tubular pump
Zhou Jiren, Cheng Li, Liu Chao, Tang Fangping
The flow patterns and hydraulic performances of two different bulbs of pump system, i.e. normal type and slin type, were studied. Based on the RNG k-ε model, the SIMPLEC algorithm was applied to the solution of the discretization governing equation. Using multiple reference frames, the flow details of whole pumping systems whose length was of 10.72D, where D was of the impeller diameter, were obtained. The influences of the flow of pump system on difference bulbs were analyzed.The unsuitable design of bulbs caused flow separation and vortex. The calculation results illustrate that the static pressure contours of two pumping systems which were operated at design flowrate, large flowrate and small flowrate, were similar, and therefore the shape of bulb does not impact on the operation status of impllers. The results showed that the flowrate of minimum loss for slin taper bulb is of 112 percent of design flowrate, while that for normal bulb is of 106 percent of design flowrate. It is not quadratic  function between flowrate and hydraulic loss, and the loss is somewhat related with the operating region. 3D numerical computation and model test showed that the performance of slin taper bulb was better than that of normal one, and consequently this type of pump system can be applied in the East Route Project of South-to-North Water Transfers.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 72-76 [Abstract] ( 1851 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 793KB] ( 1092 )
77 Influence of middle division pier on hydraulic performance in pumping station outlet conduit
Liang Jindong, Lu Linguang, Liu Ronghua, Wang Gang
In order to study the influence of middle division pier on the hydraulic performance of a low head pump system, 3D turbulent numerical simulation method was applied to calculate the flow patterns and hydraulic losses of a separated conduit of a certain low head pumping station. Under the design discharge that the middle division pier was set in the conduit, the hydraulic losses calculated were increased by 0.024 m and 0.033 m, respectively. Transparent conduit model experiments were carried out to validate the calculation results. The results of the model experiment are consistent with those of the numerical simulated ones. Based on the numerical simulation and model experiment results, the influence of the pier on the hydraulic performance for both siphon outlet conduit and straight outlet conduit were studied. The results indicate that the flow pattern in the conduit is asymmetrical due to the influence of the flow circulation at the outlet section of the pump guide vane. And consequently, the hydraulic performance of the conduit was affected to a certain extent by the pier. The longer the pier, the larger the influence.Therefore,the pier is unprofitable to the hydraulic performance of the conduit and the pier for alarge pumping station with low head could be removed if the structural design condition of the conduit is permitted.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 77-81 [Abstract] ( 1979 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 605KB] ( 799 )
82 Numerical simulation and design method of hot air for porous pipe based on CFD
Wang Xinkun, Xu Wenbo, Zhao Kun, Li Junhong, Xu Ying
To overcome the condition that the lowly efficient use of hot air heating in greenhouse, a design method of hot air heating for a porous pipe in greenhouse was put forward. The model of a porous pipe was created by using the Pro/E, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.2 was adopted to simulate the porous pipe interior flow mechanism and performance by setting up the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, the RNG k-εturbulent model and the SIMPLEC algorithm. By using the search principle of bisection algorithms, numeric heat transfer theory, hydrodynamics and back step method, a design method of hot air heating in a porous pipe was studied, meanwhile which was computed by making use of VB 6.0 computer language program. The results show that the flow index of emitter on the porous pipe is 0.507, the performance is fine. When the inlet pressure is 10 kPa, the outlet pressure is 0 Pa, the inlet temperature is 300 K, the outlet temperature is 278 K, the coefficient of conducting heat of the boundary is 0.055, the temperatures on the other orifice on the porous pipe were almost the same, and the pressures had the pressure-drop of about 200 Pa. The results of design were a little higher than that of numerical simulated ones, but the curves agreed with the pressure and temperature. Both the pressure and temperature uniformity coefficients were larger than 0.8, which satisfied the need of hot air flow uniformity for a porous pipe.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 82-86 [Abstract] ( 2076 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 466KB] ( 1054 )
87 Experiment and mathematical model on hydraulic calculation of laterals in subsurface drip irrigation
Li Gang, Wang Xiaoyu1, Bai Dan2
In order to study hydraulic characteristics and hydraulic calculation method of SDI lateral, emitter discharge and lateral pressure head of two drip irrigation pipes in light clay were measured respectively by using shorter lateral with end flow and the laboratory test system of SDI lateral. Experiment results showed that discharge of every emitter was almost invariable with time after 2 min irrigating. Emitter discharges reduce in turn along SDI lateral under a certain pressure difference. According to variation of pressure head along lateral, mathematical model of hydraulic calculation in SDI lateral was built based on the empirical formula for calculating SDI emitter discharge, which considered soil texture, soil mass density and initial soil moisture. The relative error between model computing results and measuring results was about 1.0%. The increasing coefficient considering local head loss of SDI lateral was about 1.20. The model can be applied to solving hydraulic characteristic values of SDI lateral under uniformity slope, homogeneous soil, and unchanged diameter and spacing of laterals.
2011 Vol. 29 (1): 87-92 [Abstract] ( 2536 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 485KB] ( 1001 )
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