排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2013, Vol. 31 Issue (6): 528-533    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.2013.06.014
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文丘里施肥器能量转化关系
范兴科, 孔令阳

(1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100; 2.西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院, 陕西 杨凌 712100; 3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
Relationship of energy conversion for Venturi injector

(1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; 2.Institute of Watersaving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; 3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)
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摘要 为了深入了解文丘里施肥器喉部负压的产生条件和变化过程,通过对进出口和喉部分别有测压设计的文丘里施肥器进行有压过流试验,研究了水流在不同特征断面处的能量转化关系.对于试验用文丘里施肥器,试验结果表明:当压力水流通过时,进口处的压能将转化成喉部处的动能,随着进口压能和流量的不断增大,喉部动能增大,喉部的压能完全消失,局部开始产生负压,负压达到最小值后,继续增大进口压力水头将不再引起喉部负压值的变化,但流速的增幅明显增大,喉部动能随流量的增加呈抛物线形趋势增大,产生的水头损失急剧增大;对于同一流量,喉部实际流速与理论流速的差异反映了喉部对应断面处的真空空间的大小;相对于自由出流,非自由出流条件下,喉部开始产生负压时对应的进口起点压力提高,流量相对较大,产生相同负压时的进口压力和流量明显高于自由出流条件.
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范兴科
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关键词文丘里施肥器   能量转化   喉部负压   流量   流速     
Abstract: To understand the causal conditions and processes of negative pressure in the throat of Venturi injector, by measuring pressures at the inlet, outlet and throat for Venturi injector respectively, the energy conversion relations of water flow at different feature sections were studied. The results show that the inlet pressure energy is translated into the throat kinetic energy when water flows through the Venturi injector. As the inlet pressure energy and the discharge increase, the kinetic energy in the throat increases, when the kinetic energy in the throat reaches a certain value, the pressure energy at the throat disappears completely and the negative pressure occurs. When the negative pressure reaches the minimum value and remains stable, the flow velocity increases significantly as the inlet pressure increases. The kinetic energy and head loss in the throat also increases very quickly as the flow rate increases. At the same flow rate, the differences between actual and theoretical flow velocity could indicate the size of throat vacuum space. Compared with freeoutflow conditions, under nonfreeoutflow conditions, the starting pressure causing the negative pressure in the throat increases, and the flow volume is relatively great. To obtain the same negative pressure, the inlet pressures and flow rate under nonfreeoutflow conditions are significantly greater than those under freeoutflow conditions.
Key wordsVenturi injector   energy conversion   throat negative pressure   flow rate   flow velocity   
收稿日期: 2012-10-17; 出版日期: 2012-06-25
基金资助:

国家863计划项目(2011AA1005A4)

通讯作者: 孔令阳(1987—),女,吉林长春人,硕士研究生(kly0802@163.com),主要从事节水灌溉新技术研究.   
作者简介: 范兴科(1964—),男,陕西岐山人,研究员(gjzfxk@vip.sina.com),主要从事节水灌溉新技术和灌溉产品开发研究.
引用本文:   
范兴科,孔令阳. 文丘里施肥器能量转化关系[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2013, 31(6): 528-533.
FAN Xing-Ke,KONG Ling-Yang. Relationship of energy conversion for Venturi injector[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2013, 31(6): 528-533.
 
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