排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2012, Vol. 30 Issue (1): 80-84    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.2012.01.016
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自动补水蒸发皿装置的原理及应用
刘小飞, 张寄阳, 孙景生, 申孝军, Uzokwe Pauline Adaobi
中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所/农业部作物需水与调控重点实验室, 河南新乡 453003)
Principle and application of evaporation pan with device of water automatic replenishing
LIU Xiao-Fei, ZHANG Ji-Yang, SUN Jing-Sheng, SHEN Xiao-Jun, Uzokwe Pauline Adaobi
(Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Lab of Crop Water Use and Regulation of Ministry of Agriculture, Xinxiang, Henan 453003,China)
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摘要 为了更好地利用蒸发皿的蒸发量指导农田灌溉,根据马氏瓶工作原理设计了一种简单、实用,价格低廉而且操控性强的恒水位蒸发皿装置,此装置在20 cm标准蒸发皿的基础上附加了一个自动补水装置.以20 cm标准蒸发皿的蒸发量为标准,对可进行自动补水的恒水位蒸发皿的水面蒸发过程进行了验证.通过大田冬小麦试验建立了水面蒸发过程与冬小麦同阶段耗水过程的关系.结果表明,设计开发的蒸发皿装置,具有较好的稳定性,组间测量值相对平均误差小于5%,超过5 d相对平均误差小于2%;其水面蒸发过程与20 cm标准蒸发皿的蒸发量具有显著的相关关系,相关系数高达0.99;华北地区优质高产冬小麦在拔节期、抽穗扬花期和灌浆成熟期的田间耗水量,与自动补水蒸发皿同阶段累计水面蒸发量的比值分别为1.09,1.31和1.16.因此,可以用该装置的水面蒸发量来指导农田灌溉,达到农作物优质、高效、高产的目的.
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刘小飞
张寄阳
孙景生
申孝军
Uzokwe Pauline Adaobi
关键词蒸发皿   灌溉   自动补水   蒸发量   作物系数     
Abstract: In order to better make use of pan evaporation for guiding crop irrigation,a simple,cheap and easy for use evaporation pan with a device of water automatic replenishing was designed based on the working principle of the Markov′s bottle.In fact,such a pan was an updated version of the 20 cm standard evaporating pan by attaching a device that can replenish water automatically,so that water keeps a constant level in the updated pan.According to the standard evaporation in the 20 cm standard evaporation pan,the water evaporation process in the designed pan was verified.The relationship between the water evaporation and water consumption by winter wheat during the same growing period was established by field experiment.The results showed that the designed pan has a good stability,the average relative error between two different measurement groups was less than 5%,and the average relative error in more than 5 day was less than 2%.In addition,there was such a significant correlation between the water surface evaporation of the designed pan and 20 cm standard evaporation pan that the correlation coefficient was as high as 0.99.In North China,the ratios of the water consumption by winter wheat over that accumulated water evaporation of the designed pan device were 1.09,1.31 and 1.16 at jointing,headingflowering and grainfilling maturity stage,respectively.Therefore,the water evaporation of the designed pan device can guide farmland irrigation to realize excellent quality,high efficient and high yield of crop.
Key wordsevaporation pan   irrigation;device of water automatic replenishing   evaporation   crop coefficient   
收稿日期: 2011-04-18; 出版日期: 2012-01-30
基金资助:

国家863计划项目(2011AA100502,2011AA100509); 现代农业棉花产业技术体系建设专项资金资助项目(CARS-18-19)

通讯作者: 刘小飞(1976—),男,陕西临潼人,助理研究员(lxffiri@yahoo.com.cn),主要从事作物灌溉原理研究.   
作者简介: 孙景生(1962—),男,辽宁建平人,研究员,博士生导师(通信作者,jshsun@yahoo.com.cn),主要从事作物灌溉原理与节水技术研究.
引用本文:   
刘小飞,张寄阳,孙景生等. 自动补水蒸发皿装置的原理及应用[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2012, 30(1): 80-84.
LIU Xiao-Fei,ZHANG Ji-Yang,SUN Jing-Sheng et al. Principle and application of evaporation pan with device of water automatic replenishing[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2012, 30(1): 80-84.
 
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