排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2019, Vol. 37 Issue (2): 174-178    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.17.0258
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喷灌灌水与施肥对春小麦水分动态及产量的影响
朱忠锐, 范永申, 段福义, 陈震
1. 中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所/河南省节水农业重点试验室,河南 新乡453002; 2. 中国农业科学院研究生院,北京100081
Effects of sprinkler irrigation and fertilization on water dynamic and yield of spring wheat
ZHU Zhongrui, FAN Yongshen, DUAN Fuyi, CHEN Zhen
1. Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Water Saving Agriculture of Henan Province, Xinxiang, Henan 453002,China;2.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081,China
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摘要 为了探索河西走廊春小麦适宜的喷灌灌溉施肥制度,以当地畦灌模式为对照对比分析了不同灌水方式、灌溉施肥水平下土壤水分动态分布及产量效应并对春小麦产量进行了回归分析.研究了喷灌条件下灌水前后土壤水分分布动态、不同生育期内土壤含水率变化特征及不同灌水量水平下土壤水分下渗状况,分析了不同灌水、施肥水平对产量及产量构成要素的影响.结果表明,喷灌灌水定额为75 mm时,有部分水分下渗至春小麦主要根系活动层以下,但较畦灌量小;喷灌灌水定额在45~60 mm时,灌水后大部分水分储存在0~40 cm土层;春小麦整个生育期内,中等灌溉水平40~80 cm土层土壤水分变化不明显;春小麦产量及其构成要素对灌溉量响应大于施肥量,灌溉量过大时,产量有下降趋势;喷灌条件下,中等灌溉、追肥水平下产量较畦灌高1105%,节水增产效果显著.另外,根据产量拟合方程并结合水分利用效率,喷灌中等灌水、施肥水平为该地区适宜发展的灌溉施肥制度.
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朱忠锐
范永申
段福义
陈震
关键词春小麦   喷灌   河西走廊   水分动态   产量     
Abstract: In order to explore the suitable sprinkler irrigation and fertilization system for spring wheat in Hexi Corridor, the local surface irrigation model was used as a contrast to analyze the dynamic distribution of soil moisture and yield effects under the different irrigation methods, irrigation and fertilization levels. In addition, a regression analysis was conducted on the yield of spring wheat. The main content of this research consisted of the dynamics of soil water distribution before and after irrigation under sprinkler irrigation, soil water content variation characteristics under different growth periods and the soil water infiltration under different irrigation levels. Last but not least, the effects of different irrigation and top dressing levels on the yield and its components were analyzed. The results show that when the sprinkler irrigation quota is 75 mm, some water infiltrates below the active layer of the main root system of spring wheat, but the amount is less than the volume of the surface irrigation; when the quota is between 45 and 60 mm, most of water is stored in 0-40 cm soil layer. During the whole growth period of spring wheat, under medium irrigation level, the soil water content in the 40-80 cm soil layer is not significantly changed. Then the more important findings is that the yield and its components of spring wheat respond more strongly to the irrigation quantity than fertilization. When the irrigation quantity is too large, the yield will be declining. Under sprinkler irrigation, the productivity is 11.05% higher than that of surface under medium irrigation and top dressing level, and the effects of watersaving and yieldincreasing are significant. Additionally, according to yield fitting equation and WUE, the medium level of sprinkler irrigation and fertilization is the most suitable system in the area.
Key wordsspring wheat   sprinkler irrigation   Hexi Corridor   moisture dynamic   yield   
收稿日期: 2017-12-04;
引用本文:   
朱忠锐,范永申,段福义等. 喷灌灌水与施肥对春小麦水分动态及产量的影响[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2019, 37(2): 174-178.
ZHU Zhong-Rui,FAN Yong-Shen,DUAN Fu-Yi et al. Effects of sprinkler irrigation and fertilization on water dynamic and yield of spring wheat[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2019, 37(2): 174-178.
 
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