In order to improve water and fertilizer use efficiencies while crop yield is kept increasing and to slow down surface pollution in dry land farming, a field study was conducted by orthogonal design of experiment to clarify effects of super absorbent polymer(SAP)and nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers(NPF)on fertility levels at different depths of soil, maize growth and nutrient use efficiency of rain-fed maize in the field. SAP and NPF application modes were sought for the optimal maize yield. The results show that the effects of three factors on fertility at different depths of soil, maize growth and nutrient use efficiency are inconsistent. SAP mainly affects soil fertility and crop nutrients, but NPF mainly influences soil nutrients and crop biomass. Under the conditions of this experiment, the maximum maize yield of 1.27 kg/m2 appears when SAP is in 45 kg/hm2 dose, and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are in 120 kg/hm2 and 120 kg/ hm2 doses, respectively. The maximum increment in maize yield is 8% compared with the treatment without SAP and NPF, while the nitrogen fertilizer has achieved the maximum partial factor productivity of 105.83 kg / kg.
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