排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2018, Vol. 36 Issue (9): 886-891    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.18.1175
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水肥耦合对温室番茄产量、水分利用效率和品质的影响
李欢欢, 刘浩*, 孙景生, 马筱建, 崔永生, 马岩川
中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所农业部作物需水与调控重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453002
Effects of water and fertilizer coupling on yield, water use efficiency and quality of tomato in greenhouse
LI Huanhuan, LIU Hao*, SUN Jingsheng, MA Xiaojian, CUI Yongsheng, MA Yanchuan
Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture, Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang, Henan 453002, China
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摘要 为指导日光温室番茄高产节水优质的灌溉施肥,以番茄为研究对象,设置3种施肥方式(总施肥量相同,施肥时间不同,其中F1:不施底肥,番茄移栽后随水追施总肥量的30%,剩余70%平分6次追肥,F2:底肥施1/2,剩余平分6次追肥,F3:全施底肥不追肥)和3种土壤水势的灌水下限(W1:-30 kPa,W2:-50 kPa,W3:-70 kPa),研究滴灌条件下水肥耦合对番茄耗水量、产量、水分利用效率和品质的影响.结果表明:施肥方式对番茄的耗水量差异不具有统计学意义,而灌水下限对耗水量有极显著性影响,且耗水量与灌水量呈极显著的正相关关系(P<0.01);与产量最大处理F2W1相比,F2W2处理产量降低6.91%,但节水14.83%,水分利用效率提高8.51%;TTS质量分数与平均单果重呈极显著负相关,而与除糖酸比外其他影响品质指标呈显著性正相关关系;综合考虑产量、WUE及TTS质量分数,利用TOPSIS综合评价方法,确定了温室滴灌条件下番茄节水调质的最优灌溉施肥模式为:移栽前施入底肥为总肥量的50%,移栽后灌水20 mm,进入开花坐果期以后,20 cm土层的土壤水势控制在-50 kPa以上,每次灌水定额为10 mm,剩余肥料每隔1次灌水追肥1次,将剩余50%的肥料分6次追肥.研究成果为制定日光温室番茄节水高产优质的灌溉模式提供了理论依据.
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李欢欢
刘浩*
孙景生
马筱建
崔永生
马岩川
关键词番茄   产量   水分利用效率   品质   灌溉模式     
Abstract: In order to guide the fertigation of high yield and water-saving and best quality of tomato in greenhouse, effects of water and fertilizer coupling on water consumption, yield, water use efficiency and quality of tomato under drip irrigation were studied in this paper. Tomato was taken as the study object, 3 fertilization methods were set up, in which the total fertilizer quota was the same, but the fertilization frequency was different. In the first method F1, there was base fertilizer, 30% of the total fertilizer quota was applied with water after tomato transplanting, and the remaining 70% was equally divided into 6 portions and applied each afterwards. In the second method F2, the base fertilizer is half the total fertilizer quota, the remaining half was equally divided into 6 portions and applied each then. In the third method F3, the base fertilizer was the total fertilizer quota and applied once. There were 3 lower irrigation limits of soil matric potential(W1:-30 kPa, W2:-50 kPa, W3:-70 kPa)in treatments 1 to 3. The results show that fertilization methods don′t result in significant difference in water consumption for tomato, but the lower irrigation limit had a significant effect on water consumption, especially, the water consumption has a rather significant positive correlation with the irrigation quota(P<0.01). Compared with treatment F2W1 with the maximum yield of tomato, the yield of treatment F2W2 is decreased by 6.91%, the water saving efficiency, however, is raised by 14.83% and the water use efficiency is increased by 8.51%. TTS is negatively correlates with average fruit weight, but significantly positively correlated with the other factors except the sugar to acid ratio. By comprehensively considering production, WUE and TTS, and by using the TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation method, the optimal irrigation mode of water-saving with best quality of tomato under drip irrigation condition in greenhouse is determined, namely 50% of the total fertilizer is applied as the base fertilizer before transplanting, then irrigation quota is 20 mm after transplanting, the soil matric potential of 20 cm soil layer is controlled above -50 kPa, the irrigation requirement is 10 mm, and the remaining 50% of the fertilizer is equally divided into 6 times topdressing in flowering and fruit setting period. The results provide a theoretical basis for formulation of water-saving, high yield and best quality irrigation mode of tomato in greenhouse in north China.
Key wordstomato   yield   water use efficiency   quality   irrigation and fertilizer model   
收稿日期: 2018-05-14;
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金资助项目(51779259)

引用本文:   
李欢欢,刘浩*,孙景生等. 水肥耦合对温室番茄产量、水分利用效率和品质的影响[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2018, 36(9): 886-891.
LI Huan-Huan,LIU Hao-*,SUN Jing-Sheng et al. Effects of water and fertilizer coupling on yield, water use efficiency and quality of tomato in greenhouse[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2018, 36(9): 886-891.
 
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