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排灌机械工程学报  2018, Vol. 36 Issue (6): 544-552    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.16.0296
泵理论与技术 最新目录 | 下期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 Previous Articles  |   
咸水灌溉对土壤水盐分布和小麦产量的影响
李国安, 蒋静1, 马娟娟1, 张济斌2, 郭向红1
1.太原理工大学水利科学与工程学院, 山西 太原 030024; 2.山西水务工程建设监理有限公司, 山西 太原 030002
Effect of saline water irrigation on water-salt distribution and yield of wheat
LI Guoan1, JIANG Jing1, MA Juanjuan1, ZHANG Jibin2, GUO Xianghong1
1.College of Water Resources Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China; 2. Shanxi Water Engineering Construction Supervision Co., LTD, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030002, China
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摘要 在石羊河流域中游开展田间灌溉试验,试验设置3种灌水量,灌溉定额分别为355,280,205 mm(W1,W2和W3);4种灌水矿化度0.7,3.0,5.0和7.0 g/L(S1,S2,S3和S4),共12个处理,每个处理3组重复.研究结果表明:淡水灌溉条件下,土壤积盐率不超过15%,当灌水矿化度在3.0 g/L以上时,土壤剖面盐分积累峰值在20~40 cm层,灌溉水带入的盐分有40%~80%积累在60 cm深度.当灌水矿化度为3.0 g/L时,盐分胁迫造成春小麦减产在10%以下;灌水矿化度为5.0 g/L和7.0 g/L时,春小麦减产严重,最高可达28%.相同灌水矿化度条件下,与充分灌溉(W1)相比,W2和W3分别减产10%和15%左右.拔节期—灌浆期是春小麦需水关键期,灌水要及时,3种灌水量均可以保证春小麦根区含水量维持在田间持水量的60%~80%.因此,3.0 g/L的微咸水灌溉不会造成春小麦大幅减产,合理调控灌水时间,灌水量为205~355mm可以保证春小麦土壤含水量维持在适宜的水平.
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李国安
蒋静
马娟娟
张济斌
郭向红
关键词小麦   咸水灌溉   水盐分布   盐分平衡   产量     
Abstract: Field experiments were carried out in the middle reaches of the Shiyang River Basin from 2014 to 2015. Three irrigation amount levels of 355, 280, and 205mm(W1,W2, and W3)and four water salinity levels of 0.70, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 g/L(S1, S2, S3, and S4)were settled in the experiments. There were 12 treatments in total and three replicates per treatment. The results showed that: Under freshwater irrigation, salt accumulation rate was less than 15%. However, peak value of salt accumulation was in the 20-40 cm layer. About 40-80% of salt which brought by irrigation accumulated around 60 cm depth while water salinity was higher than 3.0 g/L. Yield reduction of spring wheat under salt stress was less than 10% while water salinity was 3.0 g/L. However, yield reduction was up to 28% under water salinity 5.0 g/L and 7.0 g/L. Compared with sufficient irrigationW1 at the same water salinity, yield reduction in W2 and W3 was about 10% and 15%.Jointing to filling stage is the critical water requirement period, therefore, irrigation should be timely applied. Under three irrigation amount levels, root zone water content can be maintained in the range of 60-80% field capacity. It can be concluded that water salinity of 3.0 g/L will not cause a significant yield reduction of spring wheat. Soil moisture can be guaranteed in suitable level with irrigation amount 205-355 mm,and irrigation time should be regulated reasonably.
Key wordswheat   saline water irrigation   water-salt distribution   salt balance   yield   
收稿日期: 2016-11-29;
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金资助项目(51309174);山西省土壤环境与养分资源实验室开放基金资助项目(2014001)

引用本文:   
李国安,蒋静,马娟娟等. 咸水灌溉对土壤水盐分布和小麦产量的影响[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2018, 36(6): 544-552.
LI Guo-An,JIANG Jing-,MA Juan-Juan- et al. Effect of saline water irrigation on water-salt distribution and yield of wheat[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2018, 36(6): 544-552.
 
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