Transient hydrodynamic flow in the penstock of a pumped storage power station with surge chamber was simulated numerically in the paper by using method of characteristic and by involving pipe elasticity and water body inertia. In the simulation, the pipe tee was considered as a computational node, the minor hydraulic loss across it was modelled respectively with a constant minor hydraulic loss coefficient, Gardel formula and experimental data. Influences of three models on the pressure at the draft tube inlet and upsurge in the surge chamber were identified. Results showed that the impedance based on the constant minor hydraulic head loss coefficient was the minimum, and the corresponding maximum upsurge and minimum pressure at the draft tube inlet were the highest. The impedance based on the experimental data was the maximum, and the corresponding maximum upsurge and minimum pressure were the lowest. The impedance based on the Gardel formula was in between. The conclusion can provide a reference for estimating maximum upsurge and minimum pressure at draft tube inlet in hydraulic engineering.
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