1.School of Agriculture Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049, China; 2.Sihong Taiping Town Agricultural Technology Service Center, Suqian, Jiangsu 223942, China; 3.College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049, China; 4.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China; 5.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
Improving water and fertilizer use efficiencies is one of the fundamental ways to solve resources and environmental problems in the North China Plain. A series of long-term experiments were made in a typical specified field in the North China Plain, Fengqiu, Henan Province to clarify the influence of water and nitrogen fertilizer coupling on nitrogen absorption and utilization as well as grain yield of winter wheat. In the experiments, five nitrogen levels were used, at each level, there are there irrigation wet layers. The results indicated that the best nitrogen fertilizer amount was 235-250 kg/hm, and the irrigation wet layer was 37-40 cm thick in Fengqiu, the yield and nitrogen utilization rate of winter wheat could be affected if a nitrogen fertilizer amount was more or less than this best one. The impacts of irrigation on the total nitrogen content in plant, nitrogen utilization rate and yield of winter wheat are closely related to characteristics of rainfall. The lack of rainfall in critical growth periods such as stem elongation and ear emergence stages can lead to a significant decrease in yield of winter wheat. An appropriate irrigation can improve the yield, but too much irrigation cannot help to increase it further. Irrigation shows a little influence on plant nitrogen content in the case of sufficient precipitation. If rainfall is insufficient, increasing irrigation can hamper the nitrogen transfer from straw to grain.
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