排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2017, Vol. 35 Issue (5): 440-447    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.16.0100
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水氮耦合对冬小麦氮素吸收及产量的影响
秦姗姗1, 侯宗建2, 吴忠东3, 马东豪4, 张佳宝4, 黄平5
1.山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院, 山东 淄博 255049; 2.泗洪县太平镇农业技术服务中心, 江苏 宿迁 223942; 3.山东理工大学资源与环境工程学院, 山东 淄博 255049; 4.中国科学院南京土壤研究所, 江苏 南京 210008; 5.中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院, 重庆 400714
Effects of water and nitrogen coupling on nitrogen absorption and yield of winter wheat
QIN Shanshan1, HOU Zongjian2, WU Zhongdong3, MA Donghao4, ZHANG Jiabao4, HUANG Ping5
1.School of Agriculture Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049, China; 2.Sihong Taiping Town Agricultural Technology Service Center, Suqian, Jiangsu 223942, China; 3.College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049, China; 4.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China; 5.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
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摘要 为了解决华北平原资源与环境问题,提高水肥资源利用效率是其根本途径之一.利用华北平原典型地区河南封丘的定位试验,设有5个氮素水平,3个计划湿润层,系统研究了水氮耦合对冬小麦氮素吸收、氮肥利用率及产量的影响.结果表明:封丘地区最佳施氮量在 235~250 kg/hm2,计划湿润层为 37~40 cm,过低或过高都会影响小麦的产量和氮肥利用率.灌水量对冬小麦植株全氮含量、氮利用率和产量的影响与降水特征密切相关.关键生育期如返青拔节期,抽穗灌浆期降水不足会严重影响冬小麦产量.适当灌水可增加冬小麦产量,但灌水过多也无助于进一步提高冬小麦产量.降水相对较多的情况下,灌水对植株含氮量影响不大;降水不足时,增加灌水量则会抑制氮素由秸秆向籽粒的转移.
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秦姗姗
侯宗建
吴忠东
马东豪
张佳宝
黄平
关键词水氮耦合   冬小麦   氮素含量   产量   氮肥累积量     
Abstract: Improving water and fertilizer use efficiencies is one of the fundamental ways to solve resources and environmental problems in the North China Plain. A series of long-term experiments were made in a typical specified field in the North China Plain, Fengqiu, Henan Province to clarify the influence of water and nitrogen fertilizer coupling on nitrogen absorption and utilization as well as grain yield of winter wheat. In the experiments, five nitrogen levels were used, at each level, there are there irrigation wet layers. The results indicated that the best nitrogen fertilizer amount was 235-250 kg/hm, and the irrigation wet layer was 37-40 cm thick in Fengqiu, the yield and nitrogen utilization rate of winter wheat could be affected if a nitrogen fertilizer amount was more or less than this best one. The impacts of irrigation on the total nitrogen content in plant, nitrogen utilization rate and yield of winter wheat are closely related to characteristics of rainfall. The lack of rainfall in critical growth periods such as stem elongation and ear emergence stages can lead to a significant decrease in yield of winter wheat. An appropriate irrigation can improve the yield, but too much irrigation cannot help to increase it further. Irrigation shows a little influence on plant nitrogen content in the case of sufficient precipitation. If rainfall is insufficient, increasing irrigation can hamper the nitrogen transfer from straw to grain. 
Key wordscoupling of water and nitrogen   winter wheat   nitrogen rates   crop yields   nitrogen accumulation quality   
收稿日期: 2016-05-08;
基金资助:现代农业产业技术体系专项资金资助项目(CARS-03);山东省社会科学规划研究项目(13DJJJ15);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41402208)
通讯作者: 吴忠东(1968—),女,山东淄博人,副教授(通信作者,wuzhongdong@126.com), 主要从事劣质水灌溉及环境效应研究.   
作者简介: 秦姗姗(1991—),女,江苏宿迁人,硕士研究生(15725732505@163.com),主要从事水氮耦合条件下膜下滴灌研究.
引用本文:   
秦姗姗,侯宗建,吴忠东等. 水氮耦合对冬小麦氮素吸收及产量的影响[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2017, 35(5): 440-447.
QIN Shan-Shan-,HOU Zong-Jian-,WU Zhong-Dong- et al. Effects of water and nitrogen coupling on nitrogen absorption and yield of winter wheat[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2017, 35(5): 440-447.
 
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