In this paper, a control structure based on AVR microcontroller is proposed to explore a novel adaptive maximum power point tracking(MPPT)algorithm for photovoltaic(PV)pumping systems. DC-AC converter duty cycle is derived according to the principle of genetic algorithm and by combining the genetic algorithm and perturbation and the observation(P & O)method for duty cycle to search the maximum power point of the photovoltaic pumping system quickly and overcome interference on the controller caused by the dramatic changes in the external environment. The adaptability and stability of the MPPT method based on the genetic algorithm are validated in Simulink environment. Water pumping experiment is made on a test rig built for the designed photovoltaic pumping system to realize MPPT. It is shown that the system can respond the continuous change in climate exactly, causing a stable overall efficiency as good as 60%. There is a 10% improvement in comparison with the 50% efficiency of ordinary PV systems. Therefore, the developed system can provide a reliable control on the load of PV pump, but also its operation is sable with a higher overall efficiency. The work can provide a reference for optimal control of photovoltaic pumping systems.
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