排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2015, Vol. 33 Issue (11): 991-1000    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.15.0173
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小粒咖啡光合特性和抗氧化物酶对有限灌溉和氮素的响应
张岩, 刘小刚, 万梦丹, 王露, 徐航, 杨启良
昆明理工大学现代农业工程学院, 云南 昆明 650500
Photosynthetic characteristics of Arabica coffee and its antioxidant enzyme response to limited irrigation and nitrogen
Zhang Yan, Liu Xiaogang, Wan Mengdan, Wang Lu, Xu Hang, Yang Qiliang
Faculty of Modern Agricultural Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China
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摘要 为了探明云南小粒咖啡水氮高效管理模式,通过温室种植槽小区进行了为期1.5 a的试验,研究4个灌水水平(W1:充分灌水,W2:高水,W3:中水,W4:低水)和3个施氮水平(N1:高氮,N2:中氮,N3:低氮)对小粒咖啡生长和生理特性的影响.结果表明:土壤贮水量的降幅在灌水周期内先增后减,灌水后第3天降幅最大.灌水对小粒咖啡叶片光合及水分利用效率的影响大于氮肥,水平N1条件下,与水平W4相比,其他3种灌水水平在时刻10:00,12:00,14:00,16:00的净光合速率分别提高了19.60%~57.35%,18.06%~94.72%,4.40%~107.62%, 4.40%~107.62%.叶片净光合速率和蒸腾速率均随着氮肥的增加呈现先增后减的趋势,叶片水分利用效率随着灌水增加而增大.叶片抗氧化物酶(超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶)活性随着水分减少呈现先增后减的趋势,峰值均出现在水平W3中;与水平W4相比,W3水平下的3种抗氧化物酶分别增加5.01%,97.70%和167.61%,说明水分相对缺乏时,酶活性最强.增加灌水和氮肥都能够提高小粒咖啡株高、茎粗、分枝数、冠幅、叶片数和新枝长度等生长指标.处理N2W2下的叶片水分利用效率最大,同时此处理的小粒咖啡生长指标及初次产量也相对较大,因此N2W2为水氮高效利用的组合.
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张岩
刘小刚
万梦丹
王露
徐航
杨启良
关键词小粒咖啡   土壤贮水量   氮素   抗氧化酶活性   光合速率   叶片水分利用效率     
Abstract: The objective of this study is to explore an efficient management mode of water and nitrogen fertilizer for Arabica coffee. Effects of irrigation and nitrogen levels on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Arabica coffee were studied in greenhouse planting slot for 1.5 years. The irrigation and nitrogen management modes include four(W1-sufficient irrigation, W2-high water, W3-middle water, and W4-low water)and three(N1-high, N2-middle nitrogen and N3-low nitrogen)levels, respectively. The results show that the water content in the soil changes with irrigation time and has the maximum on the third day after irrigation; and the irrigation results in a greater effect on the photosynthetic efficiency of leaves and water use efficiency than the nitrogen does. For example, the net photosynthetic rates are increased by 19.60%-57.35%, 18.06%-94.72%, 4.40%-107.62% and 2.59%-79.94% at 10:00, 12:00, 14:00 and at 16:00, respectively, under N1 nitrogen condition at water levels W1 to W3, compared with level W4. The net photosynthetic and transpiration rates of leaves increase with nitrogen level initially, but then decrease; water use efficiency always increases with irrigation level. The activities of antioxidant enzymes(superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase)have got the maximum value at level W3, comparing with level W4, they are increased by 5.01%, 97.70% and 167.61%, respectively. This suggests that the enzyme is the most active when the moisture content is relatively lack. An increased irrigation and nitrogen levels can improve Arabica coffee growth parameters, such as plant height, stem diameter, branching factor, and crown diameter, number of leaves and new-branch length. For the combination of N2 and W2, not only the water use efficiency is the maximum, but also the growth parameters and initial yield are more satisfactory, thus this combination is the best for a higher efficient utilization of both water and nitrogen fertilizer.
Key wordsArabica coffee   soil water storage   nitrogen fertilizer   antioxidant enzyme activities   photosynthetic rate   leaf water use efficiency   
收稿日期: 2015-08-03;
基金资助:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51109102,51469010);云南省应用基础研究计划项目(2014FB130);云南省教育厅科学研究基金资助项目(2011Z035)
通讯作者: 张岩(1989—),男,江苏泗阳人,硕士研究生(sddzy1127@sina.com),主要从事节水灌溉理论与新技术研究.   
作者简介: 刘小刚(1977—),男,甘肃庆阳人,副教授,博士(通信作者,liuxiaogangjy@126.com),主要从事节水灌溉理论与新技术研究.
引用本文:   
张岩,刘小刚,万梦丹等. 小粒咖啡光合特性和抗氧化物酶对有限灌溉和氮素的响应[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2015, 33(11): 991-1000.
ZHANG Yan,LIU Xiao-Gang,WAN Meng-Dan et al. Photosynthetic characteristics of Arabica coffee and its antioxidant enzyme response to limited irrigation and nitrogen[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2015, 33(11): 991-1000.
 
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