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排灌机械工程学报  2015, Vol. 33 Issue (10): 866-873    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.15.0026
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水泵水轮机运行中的若干典型过渡过程
刘凯华, 张宇宁, 冼海珍
华北电力大学电站设备状态监测与控制教育部重点实验室, 北京102206
Several typical transient processes of pump turbine
Liu Kaihua, Zhang Yuning, Xian Haizhen
Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
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摘要 为了深入研究水泵水轮机不良过渡过程对机组产生的不利影响及其相应的改善措施,综述了水泵水轮机特性曲线的特有性质和重要的典型过渡过程的研究进展.详细说明了水泵水轮机过渡过程中的迟滞现象,发现水泵水轮机的运行工况点不仅与系统的当前输入有关,而且与系统过去的历史有关,因此在特定区域内水泵水轮机在同一转速时对应的流量并不相同,从而导致水泵水轮机机组的水头下降、效率降低、机组振动和产生噪声.综述了迟滞现象产生的条件,转速的影响以及改变转轮叶片进口角和叶片后掠角等改善措施;转轴应力测量的试验研究进展以及转轮叶片和导叶间的动静干涉对动态应力测量信号分析的影响,给出了相关现象的主要特征和影响因素;针对水轮机启动时的空载不稳定现象和导叶关闭时的不稳定现象可采取的改善措施,并比较了各种方法的优越性和弊端.
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刘凯华
张宇宁
冼海珍
关键词水泵水轮机   过渡过程   S特性   不稳定现象   非同步导叶     
Abstract: In order to study the negative effects of abnormal transient processes on the pump turbine and the corresponding improved measures, the inherent feature of performance curve of the pump turbine(named S-shaped characteristics),together with the recent research progress in several typical transient processes of the pump turbine, is introduced. The S-shaped characteristics shown in the performance curve of the pump turbine along the guide vane opening line are briefly introduced, with its physical origins and negative effects. A detailed introduction to the hysteresis phenomenon of the pump turbine is performed and it is found that the present discharge of pump turbine at the fixed rotational speed is not a unique value because the operational condition of the pump turbine depends not only on the current input of the system but also on the history of the system and hence the hysteresis phenomenon leads to the drop of water head,low efficiency, vibrations and noise. The generation condition of the hysteresis phenomenon, the influence of rotational speed and the improved methods based on changing runner inlet and outlet angles are set forth. Measurement of the dynamic stress on the shaft and influences of the rotor-stator interaction on the measured signal analysis are both elaborated,giving the corresponding phenomena, basic characteristics and paramount influencing parameters. The instability of the pump turbine working with no load at start-up as well as the instability at the guide vanes closure, and the solutions to them are also expounded. Mereover, the advantage and the disadvantage of different methods are compared.
Key wordspump turbine   transient process   S characteristic   instability   asynchronous guide vane   
收稿日期: 2015-02-09;
基金资助:清华大学水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室开放研究基金资助项目(sklhse-2015-E-01)
通讯作者: 张宇宁(1983—),男,内蒙古通辽人,副教授(通信作者,y.zhang@ncepu.edu.cn),主要从事空化和水力机械稳定性研究.   
作者简介: 刘凯华(1991—),女,河北保定人,硕士研究生(liukh@ncepu.edu.cn),主要从事水泵水轮机过渡过程和稳定性研究.
引用本文:   
刘凯华,张宇宁,冼海珍. 水泵水轮机运行中的若干典型过渡过程[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2015, 33(10): 866-873.
LIU Kai-Hua,ZHANG Yu-Ning,XIAN Hai-Zhen. Several typical transient processes of pump turbine[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2015, 33(10): 866-873.
 
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