排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2015, Vol. 33 Issue (1): 73-77    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.14.0083
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灌水量对烤烟产量和水分利用效率的影响
胡秀君1, 季旭辉2
1.浙江水利水电学院水利与环境工程学院, 浙江 杭州 310018; 2.慈溪市水利建筑勘测设计院有限公司, 浙江 慈溪 315300
Impacts of irrigation water amount on flue-cured tobacco yield and water use efficiency
Hu Xiujun1, Ji Xuhui2
1.Institute of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, China; 2.Cixi Water Conservancy Construction Survey Design Institute Co. Ltd., Cixi, Zhejiang 315300, China
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摘要 灌水时期不当或灌水量过大会降低烟叶的产量,同时造成水分的浪费,探究烟草适宜的灌水量至关重要.在蒸渗仪中开展试验,研究了不同灌水量对土壤水分、烤烟的水分利用效率和产量的影响.结果表明:烤烟K326各处理不同土层含水率变化规律比较一致,(0,10] cm土层含水率受气温、日照等气候因素较大;(10,20] cm土壤含水率变化较剧烈;(20,60] cm土壤含水率在整个生育期变化比较平缓,尤其在成熟后期各处理均出现不同程度的回升趋势,结合烤烟成熟期生理活动减弱、需水量减少,说明成熟期采取较小的灌水量比较适宜.成熟期烤烟的干物质产量在一定范围内随灌水量的增大而增加,如果继续加大灌水量将出现“报酬递减”现象.结合烟叶产量、烟株长势、耗水量和水分生产效率的结果,表明2 700~3 000 m3/hm2可以作为烤烟K326适宜的灌水量.在烤烟生产中,应均衡协调产量、水分生产效率与耗水量之间的关系,在高产前提下,适当减少灌水量,可达到既高产又节水的协调统一.
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胡秀君
季旭辉
关键词烤烟   灌水量   产量   水分利用效率     
Abstract: Improper irrigation period or excessive irrigation can reduce tobacco yield and cause water waste, so it is very important to explore a suitable irrigation water amount for flue-cured tobacco. In this paper, a series of experiment are carried out in a field by means of Lysimeter to study the effects of irrigation water amount on yield and water use efficiency of flue-cured tobacco. The experimental results show that the soil moisture is more greatly influenced by climatic factors, such as temperature, sunshine and so on. The soil moisture changes dramatically in(10, 20] cm thick soil layer, while in(20, 60] cm thick soil layer, it keeps a little variation during the whole growth period. Note that in the late maturity period the soil moisture is slightly increased in(20, 60] cm layer because of reduced water demand by the weakened physiological activity of tobacco plants, suggesting a less irrigation water should be applied in that period. Dry mass yield of tobacco rises with increasing irrigation water amount in a certain range at the maturity stage. However, if the irrigation water amount is beyond a certain high level, the yield can be lowed, i.e. the 'diminishing returns' phenomenon occurs. Considering dry leaf yield, plant growing, water consumption and water use efficiency as a whole, the suitable irrigation water amount for flue-cured tobacco K326 should be 2 700-3 000 m3/hm2. The relationships among yield, water consumption and water use efficiency should be well balanced and coordinated in flue-cured tobacco cultivation. Under the premise of high yield, irrigation water amount should be reduced properly to achieve a compromise between high yield and water saving. 
Key wordsflue-cured tobacco   irrigation water   crop yield   water use efficiency   
收稿日期: 2014-06-13;
基金资助:贵州省烟草专卖局重大技术开发与推广应用项目(201010)
通讯作者: 胡秀君(1986—),女,安徽黄山人,讲师(huxiujun86@sina.com),主要从事节水灌溉和水环境修复研究.   
作者简介: 季旭辉(1985—),男,山西临汾人,助理工程师(jixuhui20102sina.com),主要从事土壤水分变化研究.
引用本文:   
胡秀君,季旭辉. 灌水量对烤烟产量和水分利用效率的影响[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2015, 33(1): 73-77.
HU Xiu-Jun-,JI Xu-Hui-. Impacts of irrigation water amount on flue-cured tobacco yield and water use efficiency[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2015, 33(1): 73-77.
 
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