排灌机械工程学报
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排灌机械工程学报  2014, Vol. 32 Issue (9): 771-775    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.13.0214
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混流式模型水轮机空化流动分析与试验研究
王磊1, 娄瑜2, 王照福1
1.华电电力科学研究院水电技术研究所, 浙江 杭州 310030; 2.水利部科技推广中心, 北京 100038
Cavitating flow simulations and experiments on Francis turbine model
Wang Lei1, Lou Yu2, Wang Zhaofu1
1.Institute for Hydroelectric Technology, Huadian Electric Power Reasearch Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China; 2. Science and Technology Promotion Center Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100038, China
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摘要 采用基于气泡动力学的两相流方法,对白鹤滩水电站百万千瓦级混流式模型水轮机进行定常、非定常空化流动分析,并与模型水轮机的空化试验结果进行比较.定常空化流动计算中采取降低尾水管出口绝对压力、减小装置空化系数的方式模拟模型水轮机空化试验过程,流道内压力、速度矢量、气体体积分布分析能够较好地预测水轮机流道内空化的发展特性、叶片空穴区域和尾水涡带空腔的发展过程.非定常空化流动分析能够准确地预测叶片空化和涡带空腔随时间的变化规律以及尾水压力脉动频率,其计算出的振动频率和振幅与试验结果比较相一致,结果显示尾水管空腔涡带随空化发展对压力脉动和机组不稳定运行的影响显著增大,压力脉动也对空化较为敏感,空化越为严重,压力脉动越严重,空化的产生加剧了水轮机内部流场的水力不稳定性.
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王磊
娄瑜
王照福
关键词混流式水轮机   百万千瓦级   模型   空化   流场分析   试验     
Abstract: Based on a two-phase cavitation flow model, both steady and unsteady cavitating flows in a model of 1 000 MW Francis turbine for Baihetan hydropower station are carried out, and the predicted cavitation performance and pressure pulsation are compared with the measured ones. In steady cavita-ting flow simulations, the total pressure of stream in the draft tube is lowered step by step, causing a steadily reduced cavitation coefficient available so as to mimic cavitation progress in an experiment on the model. The features of cavitation development, cavity locations and evaluation of cavitating vortex rope in the draft tube have been predicted well by means of pressure distribution, velocity vector and vapour volume fraction. Additionally, unsteady cavitating flow simulations can predict temporal variations of the cavities and vortex rope as well as the frequencies of pressure fluctuation precisely; consequently, the vibration frequency and amplitude estimated are consistent with the experimental data. It is shown that vortex rope in the draft tube can affect the pressure pulsation and instability of the turbine more significantly with the development of cavitation. In other words, the pressure pulsation is more sensitive to cavitation, i.e. the more serve cavitation, the more violent pressure pulsation, and cavitation intensifies the hydraulic turbine instability.
Key wordsFrancis turbine   1 000 MW   model   cavitation   simulation   experiment   
收稿日期: 2013-10-21;
基金资助:

“十一五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2007BAA05B01)

通讯作者: 王磊(1983—),男,江苏宿迁人,高级工程师,博士(lei-wang@chder.com),主要从事流体机械及工程和水电站经济运行研究.   
作者简介: 王磊(1983—),男,江苏宿迁人,高级工程师,博士(lei-wang@chder.com),主要从事流体机械及工程和水电站经济运行研究.
引用本文:   
王磊,娄瑜,王照福. 混流式模型水轮机空化流动分析与试验研究[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2014, 32(9): 771-775.
WANG Lei-,LOU Yu-,WANG Zhao-Fu-. Cavitating flow simulations and experiments on Francis turbine model[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2014, 32(9): 771-775.
 
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