排灌机械工程学报
   首页  学报介绍  编 委 会  作者园地  征订启事  编校法规  编读往来  录用公告  广告合作   行业新闻  留  言  English 
排灌机械工程学报  2014, Vol. 32 Issue (7): 588-599    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8530.13.0235
最新目录 | 下期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 Previous Articles  |  Next Articles  
欧盟27国小水电的发展对我国的战略思考
方玉建1, 张金凤1,2, 袁寿其1
1.江苏大学国家水泵及系统工程技术研究中心, 江苏 镇江 212013; 2.卡尔斯鲁厄理工学院流体力学研究所, 德国 卡尔斯鲁厄 D-76131
Strategic thinking on exploitation of small hydropower in China from learning 27 countries of European Union
Fang Yujian1, Zhang Jinfeng1,2, Yuan Shouqi1
1.National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China; 2.Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe D-76131, Germany
 全文: PDF (5168 KB)   HTML (1 KB)   输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      背景资料
摘要 详细介绍和分析了欧盟27国发展小水电的现状和战略规划、欧盟可再生能源和分布式能源的结构比例,以及欧洲小水电协会系统推进小水电发展所起的作用.根据国家水利部颁发的《“十二五”全国水电新农村电气化规划》,介绍和分析了我国小水电的发展现状和战略规划;对我国发展小型和微型水电中存在的突出问题进行了详细的分析,例如:小水电的权责不清晰;小水电站数量多和管理难;小水电开发产业的延续性差和未来趋势不清晰;小水电设备的制造企业面临的问题,例如技术水平低、技术储备不足、科研投入少和科研能力差、管理程度浅等;小水电站年利用小时数偏低和径流式电站的问题.提出了5点建议:明晰小水电的权责关系,规范小水电的开发和经营;建立小流域发展综合管理委员会,采取“电站群”的管理方式;把握我国和国际市场的小水电发展趋势,把小水电产业做大做强并保持可持续发展;提出了从“一个科研中心、两个方向”出发,提升小水电设备制造企业技术水平低的思路;提高小水电站年满发小时数即设备的利用率,增加小水电的发电效益.
服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入我的书架
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
方玉建
张金凤
袁寿其
关键词小水电   微型水电   低水头   分布式能源   可再生能源   欧盟27国     
Abstract: The status and strategic plan of small hydropower development in the 27 Countries of European Union(EU), the composition of renewable energy resources and distributed power generation within EU, and the contributions of European Small Hydropower Association in promoting small hydropower development are introduced and analyzed in detail. According to the 12th 5-year-plan on national hydropower and new rural electrification issued by the Ministry of Water Resources of China, the small hydropower exploitation status and strategic planning are described and argued. A few outstanding issues in development of small and micro hydropower, such as confused rights and responsibilities, ma-nagement difficulties due to huge number of small hydropower plants, small hydropower development enterprises with poor continuity and unclear future trends, are identified. The problems that small hydropower equipment suppliers encountered, namely low technical level, insufficient technological backup, less funding invested and poor capability doing research and development, unsatisfactory ma-nagement skills and so on, are exposed. Additionally, the full-load hours are shorter per year in small hydropower plants. The problems related to run-off-the-river power plants are analyzed as well. Finally, there are five constructive suggestions proposed, i.e. clearing the rights and responsibilities of small hydropower enterprises to regulate its exploitation and operation, setting up a comprehensive management and development committee for small watersheds to manage many small hydropower plants as groups, tracking international developing trends of small hydropower to make our small hydropower industry bigger and stronger as well as sustainable, establishing "one integrated R&D center, two directions" to promote technology level of small hydro equipment suppliers, extending the full-load hours or equipment utilization efficiency to raise the power generation profits of small hydropower.
Key wordssmall hydropower   micro hydropower   low head   decentralized power generation   renewable energy   EU-27   
收稿日期: 2013-12-02;
基金资助:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51239005,51009072)
通讯作者: 方玉建(1976—),男,浙江淳安人,博士研究生(eugenef@126.com),主要从事流体机械的水力优化设计研究.   
作者简介: 张金凤(1981—),女,内蒙古赤峰人,副研究员,博士(zhangjinfeng@ujs.edu.cn),主要从事流体机械水力设计优化及内部流动特性研究.
引用本文:   
方玉建,张金凤,等. 欧盟27国小水电的发展对我国的战略思考[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2014, 32(7): 588-599.
FANG Yu-Jian-,ZHANG Jin-Feng-, et al. Strategic thinking on exploitation of small hydropower in China from learning 27 countries of European Union[J]. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engin, 2014, 32(7): 588-599.
 
[1] European Small Hydropower Association. Small Hydropower Roadmap-Condensed research data for EU-27[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2013:6-11.[2013-12-17]. http://streammap.esha.be/fileadmin/documents/Press_Corner_Publications/SHPRoadmap_FINAL_Public.pdf.
[2] 纪华. 我国第一座水电站——石龙坝水电站[J]. 中国水利, 1984(1): 29-30.
[3] Ji Hua. China′s first hydropower plant—Shilongba hydropower plant[J]. China Water Resources, 1984(1):29-30.(in Chinese)
[4] 邴凤山. 中国水力发电年鉴(第16卷)[M]. 北京:中国电力出版社, 2011: 17-18.
[5] 水利部农村电气化研究所. 小水电现状[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://www.hrcshp.org/aboutshp/aboutshp.asp?docId=05.
[6] 王治中. 小水电及其他问题研究[M]. 北京:中国水利水电出版社, 2012:1-18.
[7] 张博庭. 如何评价小水电的生态环境影响?[EB/OL]. [2014-06-16]. http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-295826-697881.html.
[8] 国家环保总局. 关于有序开发小水电切实保护生态环境的通知[EB/OL]. [2014-06-16]. http://www.mep.gov.cn/gkml/zj/wj/200910/t20091022_172400.htm.
[9] European Small Hydropower Association. Guide on how to refurbish low head small hydro sites[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2010. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/SHAPES/SHAPES%20D23_final.pdf.
[10] 水利部农村电气化研究所. 小水电的定义[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://www.hrcshp.org/aboutshp/aboutshp.asp?docId=02.
[11] 国家发展改革委经济运行调节局. 分布式能源与热电冷联产[M]. 北京: 中国电力出版社, 2013:1-5.
[12] European Small Hydropower Association. Strategic study for the development of small hydro power in the Euro-pean Union[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2002. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/publications/publications/BlueAGE.pdf.
[13] Thematic Network on Small Hydro Power. Proposals for a European strategy of research, development and de-monstration(RD&D)for renewable energy from small hydropower[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2005. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/publications/publications/Doc_Strat_TNSHP_2005.pdf.
[14] European Small Hydropower Association. SHERPA-Small hydro efficient promotion campaign action[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2008. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/SHERPA/SHERPA_Printable_Report.pdf.
[15] European Small Hydropower Association. Environmental integration of Small Hydropower Plants[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2005. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/publications/publications/Brochure_EN.pdf.
[16] Klaus Jorde, Ekart Hartmann, Heinz Unger. Good & bad of mini hydro power[R/OL]. Jakarta: The ASEAN Center for Energy(ACE), 2009. [2013-12-17]. https://energypedia.info/images/7/77/Good_and_bad_of_mini_hydro_power_vol.1.pdf.
[17] Thematic Network on Small Hydro Power. Guide on how to develop a Small Hydropower Plants[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2004. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/publications/GUIDES/GUIDE_SHP/GUIDE_SHP_EN.pdf.
[18] Mhylab & European Small Hydropower Association. E-nergy recovery in existing infrastructures with Small Hydropower Plants[R/OL]. Montcherand: Mhylab & ESHA, 2010. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/SHAPES/Multipurpose%20schemes%20brochure%20SHAPES.pdf.
[19] European Small Hydropower Association. Stream map project [EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://streammap.esha.be.
[20] European Small Hydropower Association. HYDI—The European hydro database[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://streammap.esha.be/6.0.html.
[21] European Small Hydropower Association. Reserve flow—Short critical review of methods of calculation[R/OL]. Brussels: ESHA, 2004. [2013-12-17]. http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/publications/publications/reserved_flow_-methods_of_Calculation.pdf.
[22] 中华人民共和国水利部, 中华人民共和国国家统计局. 第一次全国水利普查公报[M]. 北京:中国水利水电出版社,2013: 4.
[23] 姜美武. 小水电发展问题浅析[J]. 小水电, 2008(1):5-7.
[24] Jiang Meiwu. Discussion on the problems for small hydropower development[J]. Small Hydro Power, 2008(1):5-7.(in Chinese)
[25] 水利部规划计划司. 2007年全国水利发展统计公报[J]. 水利发展研究, 2008(9):34-40.
[26] Department of Development and Planning of Ministry of Water Resources, P.R. China. Statistics bulletin of national water conservancy development in 2007[J]. Water Resources Development Research, 2008(9):34-40.(in Chinese)
[27] 中华人民共和国水利部. “十二五”全国水电新农村电气化规划[EB/OL]. 2011: 21,29,35,41,46,52,57. [2013-12-17]. http://zwgk.mwr.gov.cn/zfxxgkml/201212/P020121213399326878560.pdf.
[28] 赵建达. 我国小水电之“伤”[J]. 高科技与产业化, 2009(12):44-46.
[29] Zhao Jianda. The wound of China’s small hydropower[J]. High-Technology & Industrialization, 2009(12):44-46.(in Chinese)
[30] Platform Water Management in the Alps. Situation report on hydropower generation in the Alpine region focusing on small hydropower[R/OL]. Evian: the Alpine Convention, 2011:26. [2014-06-16]. http://www.alpconv.org/en/organization/conference/Documents/AC11_
[31]   B8_1_Situation_Report_FIN_annex024_1.pdf?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1.
[32] Bayerisches Landesamt fur Umwelt. Anlagenstatistik[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://www.lfu.ba-yern.de/wasser/wasserkraft/anlagenstatistik/index.htm.
[33] Armstrong M, Trandinh M, Kusuma I. Low cost operations centre for eight Small Hydro Plants[C]//Procee-dings of Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America, 2011:10-11.
[34] 张光元. 清能公司区域小水电站群集中控制实践[J]. 小水电, 2006(6):24-25.
[35] Zhang Guangyuan. Practices on the central remote control of the regional small hydro power stations of clean energy company[J]. Small Hydro Power, 2006(6):24-25.(in Chinese)
[36] Kössler GmbH & Co KG. List of references Kaplan turbines/Kaplan bulb turbines/Francis turbines/Francis open flume turbines/Pelton turbines[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://www.koessler.com/en/kaplan-turbines.
[37] 浙江省水利厅. 浙江省“十一五”农村水电更新改造规划项目核对[EB/OL]. [2013-12-17]. http://www.zjwater.com/pages/category/0bm60/index_1.htm.
[38]   
[39] 栾加林, 朱效章. 中国小水电设备技术的国际差异[J]. 小水电, 2004(2):18-21.
[40] Luan Jialin, Zhu Xiaozhang. The technology gap between China small hydro power equipment and international[J]. Small Hydro Power, 2004(2):18-21.(in Chinese)
[41] 童建栋. 小水电设备制造业现状及发展趋势[J]. 电力设备, 2008(9):110-111.
[42] Tong Jiandong. The status and development trends of the industry of small hydro power equipment [J]. Electrical Equipment, 2008(9):110-111.(in Chinese)
[43] 林汝颜. 合理选择小水电年利用小时数的探讨[J]. 黑龙江水专学报, 2007,34(1):44-46.
Lin Ruyan. Choosing the annual utilization hours of small hydroelectric station rationally[J]. Journal of Heilongjiang Hydraulic Engineering College, 2007,34(1):44-46.(in Chinesee)
[44] 楼琦. 浙江省小水电流域规划与实践[J]. 水利水电技术, 2000,31(7):44-46.
Lou Qi. River basin planning and practice on small hydro in Zhejiang Province[J]. Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 2000, 31(7):44-46.(in Chinese)
[1] 杨春霞, 郑源, 郑璐, 李效旭, 周大庆, 李玲玉. 超低水头竖井贯流式水轮机转轮数值模拟优化[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2013, 31(3): 225-229.
[2] 周大庆, 陈世凡, 李超. 低水头贯流式水轮机运行特性数值仿真[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2013, 31(10): 856-861.
[3] 秦永果. 低水头滴灌过滤器的研制与应用[J]. 排灌机械工程学报, 2007, 25(4): 43-45.

江苏大学梦溪校区(镇江市梦溪园巷30号)图书馆5楼 0511-84440893 传真0511--84440033
Copyright 江苏大学杂志社 2010-2015 All Rights Reserved