A water saving and multi-objective planting structure optimization model was put forward againstthe mismatching between regional planting structure and water resources. Based on the matching degree between water requirement at different crop growing stages and the regional precipitation as well as the crop planting structure obtained by remote sensing, a planting structure optimization model with multiple objectives such as water saving, economic and ecological benefits in the irrigated area was established.With Wuquan irrigation district in Baojixia as an example, the model was optimized with ant colony algorithm. The total water requirements for irrigation district of plan 1 and plan 2 is respectively 85.4％ and 83.4％ of the present situation. The income of plan 1 is lower 5.4％ and the plan 2 is higher7.1％ than common years. Meanwhile the income of plan 1 is lower 5.9％ and the project 2 is higher 7.3％ than the droughty years. The coupling degree of precipitation of plan 1 and plan 2 is respectively higher 12.6％ and 15.6％ than common years while higher 17.5％ and 28.6％ than droughty years. The comparison between the two plans of controlled optimization shows that the second one is the better readjustment plan because, without changing the planting area, the structure optimization helps not only maintain the sustainable development of the entironment but also improve the economic income dramatically. It is practically and theoretically for agricultural water saving planning.
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